Legislation

Legislation in the United States

Legislation

United States Constitution

According to the Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, about its article titled “Legislation”: In addition to the separation of powers, there are at least two intersections of the Constitution and the legislative process. One concerns the obligation and capacity of legislatures to assess the constitutionality of their proposed enactments. The other concerns the federal judiciary’s … (read more about Constitutional law entries here).

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Legislation Background

Legislation

Ninth Circuit update (letter), Tobias, Carl, 80: 5, 49 (July-Aug. '96, AJS Judicature)

  • North Carolina's Determinate Sentencing Legislation, Clarke, Stevens H., 68: 140-152 (Oct.-Nov. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • North Carolina's New Infractions Law: Decriminalizing Noncriminals (focus), Johnston, W. Lee and LaGrange, Randy L., 70: 370-371 (Apr.-May '87, AJS Judicature)
  • Not The Real World (letter), Bilby, Richard M., 74: 177, 228 (Dec.-Jan. '91, AJS Judicature)
  • Of laws and sausages (viewpoint), Becker, Edward R., 87: 7-10 (July-Aug. '03, AJS Judicature)
  • On Senior Federal Judges and The New Social Security Law (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 67: 108 (Sep. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Opening The Courthouse Door: The Americans with Disabilities Act's Impact on the Courts (focus), Dooley, Jeanne and Wood, Erica, 76: 39-41 (Jun.-Jul. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • The Overreaching Court (letter), Howrey, Edward, 65: 336-337 (Feb. '82, AJS Judicature)
  • Perspectives on court-Congress relations: the view from the Hill and the federal bench (panel discussion), Discussion, Panel, 79: 303-309 (May-June '96, AJS Judicature)
  • Politics and Progress in Implementing the Federal Judicial Discipline Act, Burbank, Stephen B., 71: 13-28 (Jun.-Jul. '87, AJS Judicature)
  • Preventing Prison Crowding (letter), Lipscher, Robert D., 68: 208-209 (Dec.-Jan. '85, AJS Judicature)
  • Problems in cocaine sentencing (viewpoint), Zedeck, Morris S., 95: 107-108 (Nov.-Dec. '11, AJS Judicature)
  • The Problems with Mandatory Minimum Sentences (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 77: 124-125 (Nov.-Dec. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Protecting the child vs. punishing the offender (viewpoint), Libow, Julius, 79: 297, 329-330 (May-June '96, AJS Judicature)
  • Questions About Immunity (letter), Levine, Steven, 69: 124, 160 (Oct.-Nov. '85, AJS Judicature)
  • The reemergence of tribal society and traditional justice systems, Vicenti, Carey N., 79: 134-141 (Nov.-Dec. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Rehabilitating the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, Miller, Marc, 78: 180-188 (Jan.-Feb. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Resolving state-tribal jurisdictional dilemmas, Feldman, Stanley G. and Withey, David L., 79: 154-156 (Nov.-Dec. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Restitution In The Federal Criminal Justice System, Tobolowsky, Peggy M., 77: 90-95 (Sep.-Oct. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Robert Banks Responds (letter), Banks, Robert S., 74: 228, 230 (Dec.-Jan. '91, AJS Judicature)
  • S. 2648, The Judicial Improvements Act of 1990: Editor's Introduction (introduction), Author, No, 74: 111 (Aug.-Sep. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • S. 2648, The Judicial Improvements Act of 1990: The Concerns of Federal Judges, Murphy, Diana E., 74: 112, 114-115 (Aug.-Sep. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • S. 2648, The Judicial Improvements Act of 1990: The Need for Reform, Banks, Robert S., 74: 113, 115-116 (Aug.-Sep. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • Safeguarding human genetic privacy (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 86: 224 (Mar.-Apr. '03, AJS Judicature)
  • Senate, House pass juvenile justice bills (focus), Author, No, 83: 32 (July-Aug. '99, AJS Judicature)
  • Sentencing commissioners confirmed (brief), Richert, David, 83: 210 (Jan.-Feb. '00, AJS Judicature)
  • Sentencing Reforms and Racial Disparities (viewpoint), Tonry, Michael, 78: 118-119, 159-160 (Nov.-Dec. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • Should Federal Administrative Law Judges Be Independent of Their Agencies? (query), Heflin, Howell, 67: 369, 412-413 (Mar. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • State Sentencing Guidelines: Still Going Strong, Frase, Richard S., 78: 173-179 (Jan.-Feb. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Statement before the Commission on Executive, Legislative and Judicial Salaries, D'Alemberte, Talbot, 69: 5-6 (Jun.-Jul. '85, AJS Judicature)
  • Strike One, Strike Two…: The History of and Prospect for Judicial Reform in Ohio, Felice, John D. and Kilwein, John C., 75: 193-200 (Dec.-Jan. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Symposium Examines Tort Liability System Problems (focus), Burnham, David, 70: 59-60 (Jun.-Jul. '86, AJS Judicature)
  • Taking Aim at the American Legal System: The Council on Competitiveness's Agenda for Legal Reform, Hensler, Deborah R., 75: 244-250 (Feb.-Mar. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Television News And The Supreme Court: A Case Study, Slotnick, Elliot E., 77: 21-33 (Jul.-Aug. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Three branches, not two: Congress should reconsider recent assaults on federal court sentencing discretion (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 86: 276, 324 (May-June '03, AJS Judicature)
  • Time to reexamine the U.S. sentencing guidelines and mandatory penalties (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 83: 176 (Jan.-Feb. '00, AJS Judicature)
  • Toothless Case Management (letter), Cooper, Caroline S., 76: 281 (Apr.-May '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Twenty Years of Sentencing Reform: Steps Forward, Steps Backward, Tonry, Michael, 78: 169-172 (Jan.-Feb. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • The unanswered question (viewpoint), Flanders, Steven, 82: 55-56, 91-92 (Sept.-Oct. '98, AJS Judicature)
  • The unanticipated consequences of hate crime legislation, Adams, Mike S. and Toth, Reid C., 90: 129-134 (Nov-Dec '06, AJS Judicature)
  • Unwarranted distrust of federal judges (viewpoint), Burbank, Stephen B., 81: 7, 41 (July-Aug. '97, AJS Judicature)
  • Victim and Witness Assistance: New State Laws and the System's Response, Anderson, John R. and Woodard, Paul L., 68: 221-244 (Dec.-Jan. '85, AJS Judicature)
  • The Victim and Witness Protection Act of 1982 – Does It Promise More Than The System Can Deliver? (focus), Krasno, Miriam R., 66: 469-471 (May '83, AJS Judicature)
  • What Sentencing Reform in Minnesota Has and Has Not Accomplished, Knapp, Kay A., 68: 181-189 (Oct.-Nov. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • What We Know and Don't Know About Court-Administered Arbitration, Hensler, Deborah R., 69: 270-278 (Feb.-Mar. '86, AJS Judicature)
  • With unseemly speed (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 88: 52, 101 (Sept.-Oct. '04, AJS Judicature)
  • Resources

    Further Reading

    • Program Accessibility': How Courts Can Accomodate People with Disabilities, Dooley, Jeanne and Wood, Erica, 76: 250-253 (Feb.-Mar. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • 'Three strikes and you're out': Are repeat offender laws having their anticipated effects?, Clark, John, Austin, James, and Henry, D. Alan, 81: 144-149 (Jan.-Feb. '98, AJS Judicature)
    • A Correction (letter), McKusick, Vincent L., 77: 65 (Sep.-Oct. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Adjusting the compensation of federal judges (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 80: 248 (May-June '97, AJS Judicature)
    • AJS Model Statute to Establish A Judicial Compensation Commission, Author, No, 78: 9-11 (Jul.-Aug. '94, AJS Judicature)
    • Applying Rule 68 (letter), Author, No, 76: 170 (Dec.-Jan. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Assisting children and the courts: the Federal Parent Locator Service, Atkinson, Janet, 83: 26-31 (July-Aug. '99, AJS Judicature)
    • The authors respond (letter), Reynolds, William L. and Richman, William M., 81: 6, 40-41 (July-Aug. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • The Balancing Act of Court Confidentiality Agreements (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 76: 280, 325 (Apr.-May '93, AJS Judicature)
    • The Bankruptcy Courts – Caught in Limbo? (focus), Krasno, Miriam R., 67: 307-309 (Dec.-Jan. '84, AJS Judicature)
    • Bankruptcy: A Solution in Search of a Problem, DeMascio, Robert E., 67: 354-359 (Feb. '84, AJS Judicature)
    • Bill Clinton States Positions on the Federal Judiciary, Author, No, 76: 97, 100 (Aug.-Sep. '92, AJS Judicature)
    • Caseload, Conflicts, and Decisional Capacity: Does the Supreme Court Need Help?, Hellman, Arthur D., 67: 28-48 (Jun.-Jul. '83, AJS Judicature)
    • The challenges facing tribal courts today, Endreson, Douglas B.L., 79: 142-146 (Nov.-Dec. '95, AJS Judicature)
    • Civil justice reform (letter), Litan, Robert E., 80: 205 (Mar.-Apr. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • Conference Considers Changes in Court Handling of Child Abuse Cases (focus), Weisberg, Lynn, 71: 169-170 (Oct.-Nov. '87, AJS Judicature)
    • Confidentiality and the Courts: Preserving Judicial Discretion, Conlon, Suzanne B., 76: 304-307, 313 (Apr.-May '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Confidentiality and the Courts: Protecting the Right to Privacy, Burkholder, Evan A., 76: 311-313 (Apr.-May '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Confidentiality and the Courts: Secrecy's Threat To Public Safety, Reed, Charles J., 76: 308-310 (Apr.-May '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Congress Accepts Supreme Court's Invitation to Codify Supplemental Jurisdiction, Mengler, Thomas M., Burbank, Stephen B., and Rowe, Thomas D., Jr., 74: 213-216 (Dec.-Jan. '91, AJS Judicature)
    • Congress authorizes appellate study panel (focus), Tobias, Carl, 81: 125-126 (Nov.-Dec. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • Congress considers bill to split Ninth Circuit (focus), Tobias, Carl, 79: 198-199 (Jan.-Feb. '96, AJS Judicature)
    • Congress to Consider Courts Study Bill, Amendments to Judicial Survivors' Annuities Act, Garmel, Julie, 75: 272, 279-280 (Feb.-Mar. '92, AJS Judicature)
    • Congressional responses to federal circuit court decisions, Lindquist, Stephanie A. and Yalof, David A., 85: 60-68 (Sept.-Oct. '01, AJS Judicature)
    • Constitutional Rights Without Remedies: Judicial Review of Underinclusive Legislation, Miller, Bruce K. and Devins, Neal E., 70: 151-156 (Oct.-Nov. '86, AJS Judicature)
    • DCM's potential (letter), Cooper, Caroline S., 81: 50 (Sept.-Oct. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • Death Penalty Habeas Corpus: Defining the Issues, Robbins, Ira P., 73: 215-219 (Dec.-Jan. '90, AJS Judicature)
    • Decisionmaking Under Conditions of Uncertainty (letter), Shuman, Daniel W., 67: 236-335 (Feb. '84, AJS Judicature)
    • Deserving of Serious Attention (letter), Gunther, Gerald, 67: 109 (Sep. '83, AJS Judicature)
    • Development of tribal courts: past, present, and future, Myers, Joseph A. and Coochise, Elbridge, 79: 147-149 (Nov.-Dec. '95, AJS Judicature)
    • Do Mass Torts Belong in the Courtroom? (query), Feinberg, Kenneth R., 74: 237, 277 (Feb.-Mar. '91, AJS Judicature)
    • Don't send kids to adult prisons (viewpoint), Rodriguez, Luis J., 83: 6, 38 (July-Aug. '99, AJS Judicature)
    • Economic independence for federal judges (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 84: 56 (Sept.-Oct. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • Effective Case Monitoring and Timely Dispositions: The Experience of One California Court, Goodman, Marcia L., 76: 254-257 (Feb.-Mar. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Ending the Bankruptcy Jurisdiction Dilemma – An Article III Bankruptcy Court Approach, Norton, William L., Jr. and Lieb, Richard, 67: 346-353 (Feb. '84, AJS Judicature)
    • The Erosion of Judicial Immunity (focus), Reynoldson, W. Ward, 69: 114-115 (Aug.-Sep. '85, AJS Judicature)
    • The erosion of the Great Writ (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 89: 56, 90 (Sept.-Oct. '05, AJS Judicature)
    • A federal commitment to tribal justice systems, Reno, Janet, 79: 113-117 (Nov.-Dec. '95, AJS Judicature)
    • Federal Courts Study Committee Issues Final Report (focus), Carmody, Cris, 74: 51, 56 (Jun.-Jul. '90, AJS Judicature)
    • The Federal Discipline Act: Is Decentralized Self-Regulation Working?, Burbank, Stephen B., 67: 183-199 (Oct. '83, AJS Judicature)
    • Federal judicial conduct rules (brief), Gray, Cynthia, 91: 41 (Jul-Aug '07, AJS Judicature)
    • Fee shifting and public policy: the Equal Access to Justice Act, Mezey, Susan Gluck and Olson, Susan M., 77: 13-20 (Jul.-Aug. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Fee-Shifting Offers of Judgment – An Approach to Reducing the Cost of Litigation, Schwarzer, William W., 76: 147-153 (Oct.-Nov. '92, AJS Judicature)
    • Fiddling While Rome Burns: A Response to Dr. Hensler, Butler, Gregory Brian and Miller, Brian David, 75: 251-254 (Feb.-Mar. '92, AJS Judicature)
    • Florida's Sentencing Guidelines: Surviving – But Just Barely, Holten, N. Gary and Handberg, Roger, 73: 259-267 (Feb.-Mar. '90, AJS Judicature)
    • Forensic science in Arizona: update (brief), Hammond, Larry, 94: 31 (July-Aug '10, AJS Judicature)
    • The fragmentation of the federal rules, Friedman, Barry and Chemerinsky, Erwin, 79: 67-73 (Sept.-Oct. '95, AJS Judicature)
    • High Court-Legislative Relations: A View From The Ohio Statehouse, Felice, John D. and Kilwein, John C., 77: 42-48 (Jul.-Aug. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • House authorizes appellate court study commission (focus), Tobias, Carl, 80: 292-297 (May-June '97, AJS Judicature)
    • How Would The Abolition of Federal Diversity Jurisdiction Affect State Courts?, Flango, Victor Eugene, 74: 35-43 (Jun.-Jul. '90, AJS Judicature)
    • An ineffective solution (letter), Salibra, Lawrence A., II, 84: 6 (July-Aug. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • The Innocence Protection Act (focus), Loge, Peter, 86: 121 (Sept.-Oct. '02, AJS Judicature)
    • An inspector general for the federal courts (viewpoint), Hartmus, Diane M., 81: 188-189, 219-221 (Mar.-Apr. '98, AJS Judicature)
    • An Intercircuit Panel of the United States Court of Appeals: The Cost of Structural Change, Winters, Richard H., 70: 31-40 (Jun.-Jul. '86, AJS Judicature)
    • Interstate Certification of Questions of Law: A Valuable Process in Need of Reform, Robbins, Ira P., 76: 125-132 (Oct.-Nov. '92, AJS Judicature)
    • Is It Time for a National Commission on Judicial Independence and Accountability? (query), Burbank, Stephen B., 73: 176-177, 226-227 (Dec.-Jan. '90, AJS Judicature)
    • Is juvenile justice just too slow?, Butts, Jeffrey A. and Sanborn, Joseph B., Jr., 83: 16-24 (July-Aug. '99, AJS Judicature)
    • It is time to end the war on drugs (editorial), no, author, 93: 48, 83 (1, 2, AJS Judicature)
    • Judge Schwarzer's Response (letter), Schwarzer, William W., 76: 170, 213 (Dec.-Jan. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Judges and Journalists: Whose End of the Boat Is Sinking? (query), Friendly, Fred W., 65: 389-392, 450 (Mar.-Apr. '82, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Impact Statements for State Legislation: Why So Little Interest?, Olson, Susan M., 66: 147-150 (Sep.-Oct. '82, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Impact Statements: Ten Critical Questions We Must Not Overlook, Nejelski, Paul, 66: 122-135 (Sep.-Oct. '82, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Impact Statements: What's Needed, What's Possible?, Boyum, Keith O. and Krislov, Samuel, 66: 136-146 (Sep.-Oct. '82, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Improvements Act (letter), Cohn, Avern, 74: 177 (Dec.-Jan. '91, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial review is exercised properly, Cohn, Avern, 82: 29, 32-34 (July-Aug. '98, AJS Judicature)
    • The Judiciary Act of 1789: The Formal Origin of Federal Judicial Review, Mendelson, Wallace, 76: 133-136 (Oct.-Nov. '92, AJS Judicature)
    • The judiciary is too powerful, Taylor, Clifford, 82: 28, 30-32 (July-Aug. '98, AJS Judicature)
    • Jury reform pays off for New York (brief), Brief, AJS, 82: 240 (Mar.-Apr. '99, AJS Judicature)
    • Just, speedy, and inexpensive? Judicial case management under the Civil Justice Reform Act, Kakalik, James S., 80: 184-189 (Jan.-Feb. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • The juvenile court at 100, Drizin, Steven A., 83: 8-15 (July-Aug. '99, AJS Judicature)
    • Lawmaker Attitudes Toward Court Reform In Massachusetts, Miller, Mark C., 77: 34-41 (Jul.-Aug. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Legislating without deliberation (viewpoint), Tobias, Carl, 80: 236-237 (Jan.-Feb. '06, AJS Judicature)
    • Lessons for judges from the Civil Justice Reform Act (viewpoint), McArthur, John Burritt, 83: 222-223, 273-274 (Mar.-Apr. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • Limiting Federal Court Jurisdiction: The Constitutional Basis for the Proposals in Congress Today, Rice, Charles E., 65: 190-197 (Oct. '81, AJS Judicature)
    • Limiting Federal Court Jurisdiction: The Unconstitutionality of Current Legislative Proposals, Taylor, Telford, 65: 198-208 (Oct. '81, AJS Judicature)
    • Limiting Federal Court Jurisdiction: The Unforeseen Impact on Courts and Congress, Kay, Kenneth R., 65: 185-189 (Oct. '81, AJS Judicature)
    • Mandatory Mediation of Divorce: Maine's Experience (focus), Clark, Lincoln and Orbeton, Jane, 69: 310-312 (Feb.-Mar. '86, AJS Judicature)
    • Military Judges and Military Justice: The Path to Judicial Independence, Fidell, Eugene R., 74: 14-20 (Jun.-Jul. '90, AJS Judicature)
    • Misguided judicial reform (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 81: 4 (July-Aug. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • More facts needed (letter), Flanders, Steven, 81: 6 (July-Aug. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • The Need For Judicial Compensation Commissions, Author, No, 78: 6-11 (Jul.-Aug. '94, AJS Judicature)
    • The new certiorari courts (viewpoint), Reynolds, William L. and Richman, William M., 80: 206-212 (Mar.-Apr. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • A new era of federal-tribal court cooperation, Wallace, J. Clifford, 79: 150-153 (Nov.-Dec. '95, AJS Judicature)
    • The New Federal Judicial Discipline Act: Some Questions Congress Didn't Answer, Neisser, Eric, 65: 142-160 (Sep. '81, AJS Judicature)
    • New Law Eliminates Supreme Court's Mandatory Jurisdiction (focus), Weisberg, Lynn, 72: 138 (Oct.-Nov. '88, AJS Judicature)
    • Resources

      See Also

      • Legal Topics
      • Administration
      • Government
      • Interest groups
      • Political Parties
      • Political executive
      • Political process
      • Representation
      • Administrative Process
      • Electoral Systems
      • Judicial Process
      • Parliamentary Government
      • Presidential Government
      • Representational Systems
      • Coalitions
      • Lobbying
      • Representational Behavior
      • Political Participation
      • Public Interest
      • Commissioners on Uniform Laws
      • Congress of the United States
      • Engrossed Bill
      • Enrolled Bill
      • House of Representatives
      • Antidiscrimination Legislation
      • Library Legislation
      • Judicial Legislation
      • Retroactivity of Legislation
      • Workers’ Compensation Legislation
      • Gun Rights and Control Legislation
      • Game Legislation

      Further Reading (Books)

      “Ahmad, Mushtaq 1959 Legislatures in Pakistan. Lahore: Univ. of the Panjab Press.

      Allen, Carleton K. (1927) 1964 Law in the Making. 7th ed. Oxford: Clarendon.

      Allen, Carleton K. (1945) 1956 Law and Orders: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Scope of Delegated Legislation and Executive Powers in English Law. 2d ed. London: Stevens.

      Ameller, Michel (editor) (1961) 1966 Parlements: Une étude comparative sur la structure et le fonctionnement des institutions. 2d ed., enl. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

      Andrada, B. 1962 Parlamentarismo e a evolução brasileira. Belo Horizonte (Brazil): Alvarez.

      Berman, Daniel M. (1964) 1966 In Congress Assembled: The Legislative Process in the National Government. New York: Macmillan.

      Campion, Gilbert F. (1929) 1958 An Introduction to the Procedure of the House of Commons. London: Macmillan.

      Campion, Gilbert F.; and Lidderdale, D. W. S. 1953 European Parliamentary Procedure: A Comparative Handbook. London: Allen & Unwin.

      Clapp, Charles L. (1963) 1964 The Congressman: His Work as He Sees It. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.

      Craies, William F. (1906) 1963 Statute Law. 6th ed. London: Sweet.

      Dahl, Robert A. 1950 Congress and Foreign Policy. New York: Harcourt.

      Finer, Herman (1932) 1961 The Theory and Practice of Modern Government. 4th ed. London: Methuen.

      Friedmann, Wolfgang G. (1944) 1960 Legal Theory. 4th ed. London: Stevens.

      Friedrich, Carl J. (1937) 1950 Constitutional Government and Democracy: Theory and Practice in Europe and America. Rev. ed. Boston: Ginn. → First published as Constitutional Government and Politics: Nature and Development.”

      Further Reading (Books 2)

      “Galloway, George B. 1953 The Legislative Process in Congress. New York: Crowell.

      Griffith, Ernest S. (1951) 1961 Congress: Its Contemporary Role. 3d ed. New York Univ. Press.

      Gross, Bertram M. 1953 The Legislative Struggle: A Study in Social Combat. New York: McGraw-Hill.

      Hanson, Albert H.; and Wiseman, H. V. 1962 Parliament at Work: A Case-book of Parliamentary Procedure. London: Stevens.

      Harris, Joseph (1964) 1965 Congressional Control of Administration. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.

      Hart, H. L. A. 1961 The Concept of Law. Oxford: Clarendon.

      HÅstad, Elis 1957 The Parliament of Sweden. London: Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government.

      HÖjer, Carl H. 1946 Le régime parlementaire Beige de 1918 à 1940. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wicksell.

      Italy, Parlamento 1964 II parlamento nella storia d’ltalia: Antologia storica della classe politica. Edited by Giampiero Carocci. Bari (Italy): Laterza.

      Jennings, W. Ivor (1939) 1960 Parliament. 3d ed. Cambridge Univ. Press.

      Kelsen, Hans (1934) 1960 Reine Rechtslehre. With Supplement: Das Problem der Gerechtigkeit. 2d ed., rev. & enl. Vienna: Deuticke.

      King-Hall, Stephen; and Ullmann, Richard K. 1954 German Parliaments. London: Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government.

      Laponce, J. A. 1961 The Government of the Fifth Republic: French Political Parties and the Constitution. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

      Leibholz, Gerhard (1929) 1960 Das Wesen der Repräsentation und der Gestaltswandel der Demokratie im 20.Jahrhundert. 2d ed. Berlin: Gruyter.”

      Further Reading (Articles)

      “Lidderdale, D. W. S. 1951 The Parliament of France. London: Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government.

      Loewenstein, Karl (1957) 1962 Political Power and the Governmental Process. Univ. of Chicago Press.

      Mccracken, J. L. 1958 Representative Government in Ireland: A Study of Dáil Éireann 1919-48. Oxford Univ. Press.

      Maxwell, Peter B. (1875) 1962 The Interpretation of Statutes, llth ed. London: Sweet.

      More, S. S. 1960 Practice and Procedure of Indian Parliament. Bombay: Thacker.

      Morris-Jones, Wyndraeth H. 1957 Parliament in India. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

      Parliamentary Affairs. → Published since 1947 by the Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government, London.

      Pollard, Albert F. (1920) 1964 The Evolution of Parliament. 2d ed. London: Longmans; New York: Russell.

      Pound, Roscoe 1959 Jurisprudence. 5 vols. St. Paul, Minn.: West. → Volume 1: Jurisprudence: The End of Law. Volume 2: The Nature of Law. Volume 3: The Scope and Subject Matter of Law. Volume 4: Application and Enforcement of Law. Volume 5: The System of Law.

      Raalte, E. Van 1959 The Parliament of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. London: Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government.

      Ross, Alf (1953) 1959 On Law and Justice. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. → First published in Danish.

      Stone, Julius (1946) 1950 The Province and Function of Law: Law as Logic, Justice, and Social Control; a Study in Jurisprudence. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.

      Sutherland, Jabez G. (1891) 1943 Statutes and Statutory Construction. 3d ed. 3 vols. Chicago: Callaghan.

      Wahlke, John C.; and Eulau, Heinz (editors) 1959 Legislative Behavior: A Reader in Theory and Research. Glencoe, 111.: Free Press.

      Wheare, Kenneth C. 1963 Legislatures. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.”

      More Related Articles

      “Beer, Samuel H.; and Ulam, Adam B. (editors) (1958) 1962 Patterns of Government: The Major Political Systems of Europe. 2d ed. New York: Random House.

      Finer, Herman (1932) 1961 The Theory and Practice of Modern Government. 4th ed. London: Methuen. Ⅲ See especially Part 4, “Legislatures,” pages 367–572.

      Jennings, W. Ivor (1939) 1960 Parliament. 3d ed. Cambridge Univ. Press.

      Keefe, William J.; and Ogul, Morris L. 1964 The American Legislative Process: Congress and the States.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice–Hall.

      Lidderdale, D. W. S. 1951 The Parliament of France. London: Hansard Society.

      Taylor, Eric (1951) 1958 The House of Commons at Work. 3d ed. Harmondsworth, Middlesex (England): Penguin.

      Wheare, Kenneth C. 1963 Legislatures. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

      Williams, Philip 1954 Politics in Post–war France: Politics and the Constitution in the Fourth Republic. London: Longmans.

      Young, Roland A. 1958 The American Congress. New York: Harper.” “Alker, Hayward R. JR.; and Russett, Bruce M. 1965 World Politics in the General Assembly. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.

      Anderson, Lee F.; Watts, Meredith w.; and Wilcox, Allen R. JR. 1966 Legislative Roll-call Analysis. Evanston, 111.: Northwestern Univ. Press.

      Aydelotte, William 1963 Voting Patterns in the British House of Commons in the 1840s.Comparative Studies in Society and History 5, no. 2: 134–163.

      Barber, James D. 1965 The Lawmakers. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.

      Bauer, Raymond A.; Pool, Ithiel Desola; and Dexter, L. A. 1963 American Business and Public Policy: The Politics of Foreign Trade. New York: Atherton. Bentham, Jeremy (1817) 1818 Plan of Parliamentary Reform: In the Form of a Catechism…. London: Wooler.

      Bentham, Jeremy (1843) 1962 Essay on Political Tactics. Volume 2, pages 291–373 in Jeremy Bentham, Works. Edited by John Bowring. New York: Russell.

      Beyle, Herman C. 1931 Identification and Analysis of Attribute-Cluster-Blocs: A Technique for Use in the Investigation of Behavior in Governance… Univ. of Chicago Press.

      Buchanan, William 1963 Legislative Partisanship: The Deviant Case of California. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

      Burke, Edmund (1774) 1920 A Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol. Cambridge Univ. Press.

      Crane, Wilder W. 1959 The Legislative Struggle in Wisconsin: Decision-making in the 1957 Wisconsin Assembly. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Wisconsin.

      Dahl, Robert A. 1950 Congress and Foreign Policy. New York: Harcourt.” “Epstein, Leon D. 1960 British M.P.s and Their Local Parties: The Suez Cases.American Political Science Review54:374-390.

      Eulau, Heinz; and SPRAGUE, JOHN D. 1964 Lawyers in Politics: A Study in Professional Convergence.Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill.

      Finer, Samuel E.; Berrington, H. B.; and Bartholomew, D. J. 1961 Backbench Opinion in the House of Commons, 1955–59. New York: Pergamon.

      Froman, Lewis A. 1963 Congressmen and Their Constituencies. Chicago: Rand McNally.

      Gleeck, L. E. 1940 96 Congressmen Make Up Their Minds. Public Opinion Quarterly 4:3–24.

      Herring, E. Pendleton 1929 Group Representation Before Congress. Washington: Brookings Institution. Hyneman, Charles s. 1940 Who Makes Our Laws? Political Science Quarterly 55:556–581.

      Hyneman, Charless.; and Lay, Houston 1938 Tenure and Turnover of the Indiana General Assembly. American Political Science Review 32:51-67, 311–331.

      Kornberg, Allan 1964 The Rules of the Game in the Canadian House of Commons. Journal of Politics 26:358–380.

      Kornberg, Allan 1966 Caucus and Cohesion in Canadian Parliamentary Parties.American Political Science Review 60:83–92.

      Lijphart, Arend 1963 The Analysis of Bloc Voting in the General Assembly: A Critique and a Proposal. American Political Science Review 57:902–917.

      Lowell, A. Lawrence 1902 The Influence of Party Upon Legislation in England and America. American Historical Association,Annual Report [1901] No. 1: 319–542.

      Mcconaughy, John B. 1950 Certain Personality Factors of State Legislators in South Carolina. American Political Science Review 44:897–903.

      Mckean, Dayton D. 1938 Pressures on the Legislature of New Jersey. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.” “Macrae, Duncan JR. 1958 Dimensions of Congressional Voting: A Statistical Study of the House of Representatives in the Eighty-first Congress. California, University of, Publications in Sociology and Social Institutions, Vol. 1, No. 3. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

      Macrae, Duncan JR. 1963 Intra-party Division and Cabinet Coalitions in the Fourth French Republic. Comparative Studies in Society and History 5, no. 2:164–211.

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      Meller, Normanm 1960 Legislative Behavior Research. Western Political Quarterly 13:131–153.

      Meller, Norman 1965 Legislative Behavior Research Revisited: A Review of Five Years’ Publications.Western Political Quarterly 18:776–793.

      Michel, Jerry B. 1964 Legislative Decision Making: A Case Study of Reference Behavior. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Texas.

      Mill, John Stuart (1861) 1962 Considerations on Representative Government. Chicago: Regnery. ∞ A reprint of the original edition.

      Miller, Warren E.; and STOKES, DONALD E. 1963 Constituency Influence in Congress. American Political Science Review 57:45–56.

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      Patterson, Samuel C. 1959 Patterns of Interpersonal Relations in a State Legislative Group: The Wisconsin Assembly. Public Opinion Quarterly 23:101–109.” “Rice, Stuart A. 1928 Quantitative Methods in Politics.New York: Knopf.

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      Routt, Garland0 C. 1938 Interpersonal Relationships and the Legislative Process. American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, Annals 195:129–136.

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      Zisk, Betty H.; Eulau, Heinz; and Prewitt, Kenneth 1965 City Councilmen and the Group Struggle: A Typology of Role Orientations.Journal of Politics 27: 618–646.” “Antidiscrimination Legislation, Encyclopedia of the American Constitution; January 1, 2000
      Using “My Legislation” to keep up to date: the Illinois General Assembly web site’s free “My Legislation” feature enables you to stay abreast of new public acts., Illinois Bar Journal; November 1, 2007; Gaylord, Tom
      Scorecard on Legislation regarding Drone Use, Gateway Journalism Review; June 22, 2013
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      Major Consumer Legislation Adopted In Congress., Mondaq Business Briefing; December 4, 2003
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      AUSTRALIA: INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS LEGISLATION TO BE INTRODUCED INTO PARLIAMENT, US Fed News Service, Including US State News; May 3, 2006
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  • Legislation: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

    Federal Primary Materials

    The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Legislation. This part provides references, in relation to Legislation, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

    Federal primary materials about Legislation by content types:

    Laws and Regulations

    US Constitution
    Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

    Federal Case Law and Court Materials

    U.S. Courts of Appeals
    United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

    Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

    Presidential Materials

    Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

    Executive Materials

    Federal Legislative History Materials

    Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Legislation and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Legislation or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

    State Administrative Materials and Resources

    State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Legislation and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Legislation. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Legislation should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

    State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

    State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Legislation when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

    Tools and Forms

    Law in Other Regions

    *This resource guide is updated frequently. However, if you notice something is wrong or not working, or any resources that should be added, please notify us in any of the "Leave a Comment" area.

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