United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces hears appeals from the military courts (courts martial) of the army, navy, air force and coast guard. The Court was originally created in 1951 as the United States Court of Military Justice. The name was changed in 1994. Legal Materials […]

Judicial Review

Judicial Review in the United States Concept of Judicial Review In the U.S., in the context of Judiciary power and branch, Judicial Review has the following meaning: The power of the judicial branch to review actions of the legislative and executive branches (as well as the state governments) […]

Alternative Dispute Resolution

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in the United States Definition of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Settlement of civil disputes by means other than trial. The move to alternative dispute resolution (ADR) was prompted by a number of factors, but largely the time, expense, and […]


Procedure in United States Procedure Definition

The rule of pleading and practice by which, rights are enforced. It is generally considered as not including the law of evidence.

Procedure in Foreign Legal Encyclopedias

Link Description

Procedure, Procedure […]

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Federal Bureau of Investigation in the United States The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice. It is primarily charged with gathering and reporting facts, locating witnesses, and compiling evidence in cases […]


Review in United States Review Definition A second examination of a matter; ordinarily applied to a re-examination of a judicial or official determination. It is a general term, embracing re-examination obtained by every variety of procedure, as by motion for new trial, appeal, writ of error, […]


Resources Further Reading Call for Manuscripts (letter), Cole, George F., 60: 161 (Nov. '76, AJS Judicature) Congratulations (letter), Hinsdale, C.E., 60: 205 (Dec. '76, AJS Judicature) Equal Justice? (letter), Reed, Harry, 60: 161 (Nov. '76, AJS Judicature) A Forum for […]

Courts Of Appeals

Courts of Appeals in the United States Courts of Appeals, formerly Circuit Courts of Appeals, in the federal judiciary system of the United States, courts created by Congress in 1891 to relieve the Supreme Court of its great burden of work and thus to give speedier justice to litigants. […]

Foreign Judgments

Foreign Judgments in the United States Foreign Judgments and the State Laws Select from the list of U.S. States below for state-specific information on Foreign Judgments: Foreign Judgments in the Subject Index of the Alabama Portal Foreign Judgments in the Subject Index of the Alaska Portal […]


Resources Further Reading The ABA Standing Committee on Federal Judiciary: A Contemporary Assessment – Part 1, Slotnick, Elliot E., 66: 348-362 (Mar. '83, AJS Judicature) The ABA Standing Committee on Federal Judiciary: A Contemporary Assessment – Part 2, Slotnick, Elliot E., 66: 385-393 […]


In Legislation Omitted in the U.S. Code: Title 28, Part III, Chapter 50 The current, permanent, in-force federal laws regulating omitted are compiled in the United States Code under Title 28, Part III, Chapter 50. It constitutes "prima facie" evidence of statutes relating to […]


Arbitration in the United States History The common law and statute law of the United States as to arbitration bear a general resemblance to the law of England. Voluntary submissions All controversies of a civil nature, and any question of personal injury on which a suit for damages will […]

Court of International Trade

Court of International Trade in the United States Court Of International Trade Definition A court established by Congress under Article III of the Constitution to hear cases involving U.S. international trade law, including questions concerning tariffs, dumping, countervailing duties, and […]

Administrative Law

Administrative Law in the United States The body of law that concerns the powers of and procedures to be used by administrative agencies. Administrative Law (Judicial Function) also includes the law that creates such agencies and the provisions that define the extent to which agency decisions […]

Judiciary and Judicial Procedure

In Legislation Judiciary and Judicial Procedure in the U.S. Code: Title 28 The current, permanent, in-force federal laws regulating judiciary and judicial procedure are compiled in the United States Code under Title 28. It constitutes "prima facie" evidence of statutes relating to […]

Grand Jury

Grand Jury in the United States An investigative body that makes accusations rather than determines guilt. The grand jury evaluates information generated on its own or brought to it by a prosecutor. If the grand jury determines that probable cause exists, it returns an indictment against an […]

Stare Decisis

Stare Decisis in the United States Latin for "let the decision stand." Stare Decisis (Judicial Function) holds that once a principle of law is established for a particular legal situation, courts should adhere to that principle in similar cases in the future. The case in which the […]


Judges in the United States The methods used for judicial selection vary more widely. Executive appointment is used for all federal judges with the advice and consent of the Senate. The federal judicial selection process involves more participants than the constitutional provisions might […]

General Provisions

General Provisions in the United States General Provisions in Federal Practice and Procedure This section provides comprehensive coverage of the main aspects of general provisions in relation to federal procedure, including an analysis of the rules as interpreted and applied by the federal […]