A special U.S. district court created to try certain kinds of cases. The Three-Judge District Court (Judicial Organization) was authorized in 1903 and was designed to hear Sherman Anti-trust and Interstate Commerce Act cases filed by the U.S. attorney general. Soon after, the jurisdiction of this court was expanded to include citizen challenges of the constitutionality of federal law. In such suits, three-judge courts were empowered to issue injunctions against enforcement of the questioned statute. A Three-Judge District Court (Judicial Organization) is established on a per case basis and is dissolved when a particular case is concluded. A three-judge court is typically composed of two district judges and one of the circuit’s court of appeals judges. Appeals of decisions of the three-judge courts go directly to the Supreme Court.
The Three-Judge District Court (U.S.) was intended to take certain cases having unusual policy importance out of the hands of single judges. The direct appeal to the Supreme Court also had the effect of expediting important cases through the judicial process. Prior to 1960, the process worked reasonably well, although it was rarely used. The volume of civil rights litigation began to dramatically increase the number of three-judge courts convened in the 1960s. The demand for such courts increased because such congressional initiatives as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 specified use of such courts. The direct appeal feature eventually created severe caseload problems for the Supreme Court, and in 1976 Congress passed legislation limiting the use of three-judge courts to certain kinds of civil rights litigation and legislative apportionment cases.
Three-Judge District Court: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law
Federal Primary Materials
The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Three-Judge District Court. This part provides references, in relation to Three-Judge District Court, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).
Federal primary materials about Three-Judge District Court by content types:
Administrative decisions by federal agency provides links to administrative actions that are outside the scope of the CFR or the Federal Register. (copiar esta info: guides.lib.virginia.edu/administrative_decisions)
Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:
Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Three-Judge District Court and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Three-Judge District Court or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.
Bills by congress at Lawi when seeking specific bill text, legislative history or congressional record information from a specific congress.
State Administrative Materials and Resources
State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Three-Judge District Court and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Three-Judge District Court. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Three-Judge District Court should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.
State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here: