Constitutional Law Outline

American Constitutional Law Outline in the United States

For a list of online resources, see here. For an overview of comparative constitutional law, see here.

Separation of powers

The Federal Judicial Power

The Federal Legislative Power

The Federal Executive Power


Limits on State Regulatory and Taxing Power

The Structure of the Constitution’s Protection of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties

Economic Liberties

Equal Protection

Gender discrimination

Affirmative action

Substantive due process

Fundamental Rights Under Due Process and Equal Protection

First Amendment

Free Exercise

Rule for State and Local Governments
Rule for the Federal Government
Religious Rites Subversive of Good Order
Law Burdening Free Exercise as Compelled Speech

Free Speech

First Amendment: Freedom of Expression
General Doctrinal Notes
Rationales for Free Speech
Incitement to Violence/Unlawful Conduct
Fighting Words
Heckler’s Veto/Hostile Audiences
Hate Speech
Journalistic Privilege
Campaign Finance
Public Schools
Government Speech
Public Forum Doctrine

Free Association

Compelled Disclosure of Membership
Compelled Association (Funding)
Compelled Association (Membership/”Expressive” Association)


First Amendment: Religion
Background and Purposes
The Proper Test (Endorsement vs. Coercion)
School Prayer and Bible Reading
Public Religious Displays

The Second Amendment

The Commerce Clause

Dormant Commerce Clause

The aggregation principle

The Tenth Amendment

The political question doctrine

Levels of scrutiny

The state action doctrine

Some Constitutional Law Entries in the Encyclopedia

– Aaron Burr
– Abbate v. United States
– Abe Fortas
– Abington Township School District v. Schempp
– Ableman v. Booth
– Abolitionist Constitutional Theory
– Abood v. Detroit Board of Education
– Abraham Baldwin
– Abraham Lincoln
– Abrams v. United States
– Abstention Doctrine
– Academic Freedom
– Access to the Courts
– Accommodation of Religion
– Accusation
– Act of State Doctrine
– Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of
– Adair v. United States
– Adams v. Tanner
– Adamson Eight-Hour Act
– Adamson v. California
– Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pea
– Adderley v. Florida
– Adequate State Grounds
– Adkins v. Children’s Hospital
– Adler v. Board of Education of City of New York
– Administrative Agencies
– Administrative Search
– Advice and Consent
– Affected With a Public Interest
– Afrocentric Schools
– Afroyim v. Rusk
– Age Discrimination
– Age Discrimination Act of
– Agnello v. United States
– Agostini v. Felton
– Agricultural Adjustment Act
– Agricultural Adjustment Act of
– Agricultural Adjustment Act of
– Agricultural Market Transition Act
– Agricultural Marketing Act
– Agricultural Marketing Act of
– Aguilar v. Felton
– Aguilar v. Texas
– Ake v. Oklahoma
– Albert Beveridge
– Albert Gallatin
– Alberts v. California
– Albertson v. Subversive Activities Control Board
– Alderman v. United States
– Alexander Bickel
– Alexander Dallas
– Alexander Hamilton
– Alexander Meiklejohn
– Alexander Palmer
– Alexander Stephens
– Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education
– Alexis De Tocqueville
– Alfred Kelly
– Alfred Moore
– Alien Act
– Alien Species Prevention and Enforcement Act of
– Alien Suffrage
– All Deliberate Speed
– Allen Smith
– Allen v. Wright
– Allen-Bradley Company v. Local Union
– Allgeyer v. Louisiana
– Allied Structural Steel Company v. Spannaus
– Almeida-Sanchez v. United States
– Ambach v. Norwick
– Amending Process
– Amendment Process
– American Communications Association v. Douds
– American Founding
– American Indians
– American Insurance Company v. Canter
– American Jewish Congress
– American Revolution
– American System
– Americans With Disabilities Act of
– Ancillary Jurisdiction
– Andrew Johnson
– Andrew Mclaughlin
– Annapolis Convention
– Annexation of Texas
– Anonymous Political Speech
– Anti-Abortion Movement
– Anti-Federalist Constitutional Thought
– Antidiscrimination Law
– Antidiscrimination Legislation
– Antislavery
– Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of
– Antitrust Law
– Apex Hosiery Company v. Leader
– Appalachian Electric Power Company v. United States
– Appointment of Supreme Court Justices
– Appointments Clause
– Aptheker v. Secretary of State
– Argersinger v. Hamlin
– Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp.
– Armed Forces
– Arnett v. Kennedy
– Arthur Garfield Hays
– Arthur Goldberg
– Ashton v. Cameron County Water Improvement District
– Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Authority
– Asian Americans
– Asian Immigrants
– Associated Press Co. v. NLRB
– Atascadero State Hospital v. Scanlon
– Atomic Energy Act of
– Attainder of Treason
– Attorney General of New York v. Soto-Lopez
– Attorney Speech
– Augustus Garland
– Augustus Hand
– Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce
– Automobile Search
– Avery v. Midland County
– Avoidance Doctrine
– Bad Tendency Test
– Badges of Servitude
– Baehr v. Lewin
– Bailey v. Alabama
– Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co.
– Baker v. Carr
– Balanced-Budget Amendment
– Balancing Test
– Baldwin v. Fish and Game Commission
– Baldwin v. New York
– Ballew v. Georgia
– Ballot Access
– Bank of Augusta v. Earle
– Bank of the United States Acts
– Bank of the United States Bill
– Bankruptcy Power
– Bankruptcy Reform Act of
– Bankruptcy Reform Act of
– Bankruptcy Tax Act of
– Bantam Books, Inc. v. Sullivan
– Barefoot v. Estelle
– Barenblatt v. United States
– Barker v. Wingo
– Barron v. City of Baltimore
– Barrows v. Jackson
– Bartkus v. Illinois
– Bates v. State Bar of Arizona
– Batson v. Kentucky
– Bayard v. Singleton
– Beacon Theatres, Inc. v. Westover
– Beauharnais v. Illinois
– Becker Amendment
– Bedford Cut Stone Company v. Journeymen Stone Cutters Association
– Bell v. Maryland
– Benajamin Cardozo
– Bender v. Williamsport
– Benign Racial Classification
– Benjamin Butler
– Benjamin Curtis
– Benjamin Franklin
– Benjamin Harrison
– Benton v. Maryland
– Berea College v. Kentucky
– Berger v. New York
– Bernard Schwartz
– Bethel School District v. Fraser
– Betts v. Brady
– Beverley Tucker
– Bibb v. Navajo Freight Lines, Inc.
– Bicameralism
– Birth Control
– Birthright Citizenship
– Bishop v. Wood
– Bituminous Coal Act of
– Bituminous Coal Conservation Act of
– Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics
– Black Codes
– Blaine Amendment
– Blue Ribbon Jury
– Blum v. Yaretsky
– Blyew v. United States
– Board of Curators v. Horowitz
– Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet
– Board of Education of the Westside Community Schools v. Mergens
– Board of Education v. Allen
– Board of Education v. Pico
– Board of Regents v. Roth
– Board of Trustees of State University of New York v. Fox
– Bob Jones University v. United States
– Bob-Lo Excursion Company v. Michigan
– Boddie v. Connecticut
– Body Search
– Boland Amendment
– Bolling v. Sharpe
– Bonham’s Case
– Booth v. Maryland
– Border Search
– Bork Nomination
– Borrowing Power
– Boston Beer Company v. Massachusetts
– Bounds v. Smith
– Bowen v. Kendrick
– Bowers v. Hardwick
– Bowman v. Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company
– Bowsher v. Synar
– Boyd v. United States
– Bradwell v. Illinois
– Brandeis
– Brandeis as Public Interest Lawyer
– Brandeis Brief
– Brandenburg v. Ohio
– Branti v. Finkel
– Branzburg v. Hayes
– Braswell v. United States
– Bray v. Alexandria Women’s Health Clinic
– Breedlove v. Suttles
– Breithaupt v. Abram
– Brewer v. Williams
– Brewster v. United States
– Bricker Amendment
– Bridges v. California
– Brinegar v. United States
– Briscoe v. Bank of Commonwealth of Kentucky
– British Constitution
– Broad Construction
– Broadcasting
– Broadrick v. Oklahoma
– Brockett v. Spokane Arcades, Inc.
– Bronson v. Kinzie
– Brown v. Allen
– Brown v. Maryland Wheat
– Brown v. Mississippi
– Brown v. Socialist Workers
– Brown v. United States
– Brown v. Walker
– Buchanan v. Warley
– Buck v. Bell
– Buckley v. Valeo
– Budget
– Budget and Accounting Act
– Budget Process
– Bunting v. Oregon
– Burbank v. Lockheed Air Terminal
– Burch v. Louisiana
– Burdick v. Takushi
– Burger Court
– Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. v. Chicago
– Burns Baking Company v. Bryan
– Burson v. Freeman
– Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson
– Burton v. Wilmington Parking Authority
– Burton Wheeler
– Bushell’s Case
– Bushrod Washington
– Butcher’s Union Slaughterhouse v. Crescent City Slaughterhouse

Constitutional Law Outline: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Constitutional Law Outline. This part provides references, in relation to Constitutional Law Outline, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Constitutional Law Outline by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Constitutional Law Outline and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Constitutional Law Outline or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Constitutional Law Outline and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Constitutional Law Outline. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Constitutional Law Outline should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Constitutional Law Outline when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

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