Welfare Recipient

Welfare Recipient in the United States

On March 8, 1997, the President issued a memorandum to the heads of the executive departments and agencies entitled “Government Employment for Welfare Recipients.” This memorandum directed all Federal agencies to “hire people off the welfare rolls into available job positions in the Government” and to submit proposed plans for “on-the-job training and/or mentoring programs.”

To supplement this initiative, Federal agencies were asked to encourage their grantees and their subrecipients to hire welfare recipients and to provide additional needed training and/or mentoring.

Supportive Services

There are supportive services, such as transportation and day care services, for hired welfare recipients allowable costs under Federal assistance programs, to the extent that an organization’s internal and established policy permits charging of such costs in a consistent manner. These costs are usually classified as fringe benefit costs and, like salaries and wages, are distributed to all of the organization’s activities. In any case, fringe benefits in the form of transit benefits are an allowable cost under Federal grants. Section 132 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 allows up to $65 per month to be provided to employees tax free in the form of a “transit pass,” or cash if a “transit pass” is not readily available, for distribution to employees. This benefit cannot be used in lieu of compensation, but must be paid in addition to any compensation otherwise payable to the employee.

Federal tax credits to employers

There are available Federal tax credits to employers for hiring welfare recipients. The Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC), authorized by the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, is a Federal tax credit that encourages employers to hire certain job seekers and can reduce employer Federal tax liability by as much as $2100 for each qualified new worker. Welfare recipients who have received Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) or Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) assistance for at least a 9-month period, ending during the 9-month period which ends on the hiring date, are eligible for the credit. The existing WOTC expires September 30, 1997, but the Administration has proposed to extend it for one year. The Administration has also proposed an enhancement to the WOTC for long-term welfare recipients that would increase the maximum annual credit to $5000 (claimable for two years) and allow the costs of employer-provided training, health care, and child care to count as wages for purposes of the credit. The Administration has proposed to authorize the enhanced credit for three years ending September 30, 2000. For more information on claiming the present WOTC credit, employers should call or visit the State employment service office, or call the nearest U.S. Department of Labor Regional WOTC Coordinator.


Examples of appropriate jobs, requiring minimum on-the-job training, for which welfare recipients could be hired: A welfare recipient’s job placement should be commensurate with his or her education, skills, and abilities. Thus, a person with the required education, experience or skills for a specific position may be placed in such a position; however, persons without such needed education, experience or skills may be placed in an entry-level position. Several Federal departments have identified appropriate entry-level job positions, including: file clerk, mail and file clerk, office automation clerk, office automation trainee, computer clerk/assistant, claims processing clerk, custodial worker, printing plant worker, laborer, and motor vehicle operator. Generally, employees hired into these positions will be expected to perform such duties as the following: photocopy, receive and deliver mail, file, answer telephones, operate fax machines, maintain and distribute supplies, and clean laboratory equipment in research facilities.

Welfare Recipient: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Welfare Recipient. This part provides references, in relation to Welfare Recipient, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Welfare Recipient by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Welfare Recipient and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Welfare Recipient or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Welfare Recipient and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Welfare Recipient. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Welfare Recipient should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Welfare Recipient when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

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