United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in the United States

Article 19

Capacity building, education and public awareness

1. The Parties recognize the significance of capacity building —
that is to say, institution building, training and development of relevant
local and national capacities — in efforts to combat desertification and
mitigate the effects of drought. They shall promote, as appropriate,
capacity-building:

(a) through the full participation at all levels of local people,
particularly at the local level, especially women and youth, with the
cooperation of non-governmental and local organizations;

(b) by strengthening training and research capacity at the national
level in the field of desertification and drought;

(c) by establishing and/or strengthening support and extension
services to disseminate relevant technology methods and techniques more
effectively, and by training field agents and members of rural organizations
in participatory approaches for the conservation and sustainable use of
natural resources;

(d) by fostering the use and dissemination of the knowledge, know-how
and practices of local people in technical cooperation programmes, wherever
possible;

(e) by adapting, where necessary, relevant environmentally sound
technology and traditional methods of agriculture and pastoralism to modern
socio-economic conditions;

(f) by providing appropriate training and technology in the use of
alternative energy sources, particularly renewable energy resources, aimed
particularly at reducing dependence on wood for fuel;

(g) through cooperation, as mutually agreed, to strengthen the
capacity of affected developing country Parties to develop and implement
programmes in the field of collection, analysis and exchange of information
pursuant to article 16;

(h) through innovative ways of promoting alternative livelihoods,
including training in new skills;

(i) by training of decision makers, managers, and personnel who are
responsible for the collection and analysis of data for the dissemination and
use of early warning information on drought conditions and for food
production;

(j) through more effective operation of existing national institutions
and legal frameworks and, where necessary, creation of new ones, along with
strengthening of strategic planning and management; and

(k) by means of exchange visitor programmes to enhance capacity
building in affected country Parties through a long-term, interactive process
of learning and study.

2. Affected developing country Parties shall conduct, in cooperation
with other Parties and competent intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations, as appropriate, an interdisciplinary review of available
capacity and facilities at the local and national levels, and the potential
for strengthening them.

3. The Parties shall cooperate with each other and through competent
intergovernmental organizations, as well as with non-governmental
organizations, in undertaking and supporting public awareness and educational
programmes in both affected and, where relevant, unaffected country Parties to
promote understanding of the causes and effects of desertification and drought
and of the importance of meeting the objective of this Convention. To that
end, they shall:

(a) organize awareness campaigns for the general public;

(b) promote, on a permanent basis, access by the public to relevant
information, and wide public participation in education and awareness
activities;

(c) encourage the establishment of associations that contribute to
public awareness;

(d) develop and exchange educational and public awareness material,
where possible in local languages, exchange and second experts to train
personnel of affected developing country Parties in carrying out relevant
education and awareness programmes, and fully utilize relevant educational
material available in competent international bodies;

(e) assess educational needs in affected areas, elaborate appropriate
school curricula and expand, as needed, educational and adult literacy
programmes and opportunities for all, in particular for girls and women, on
the identification, conservation and sustainable use and management of the
natural resources of affected areas; and

(f) develop interdisciplinary participatory programmes integrating
desertification and drought awareness into educational systems and in non-
formal, adult, distance and practical educational programmes.

4. The Conference of the Parties shall establish and/or strengthen
networks of regional education and training centres to combat desertification
and mitigate the effects of drought. These networks shall be coordinated by
an institution created or designated for that purpose, in order to train
scientific, technical and management personnel and to strengthen existing
institutions responsible for education and training in affected country
Parties, where appropriate, with a view to harmonizing programmes and to
organizing exchanges of experience among them. These networks shall cooperate
closely with relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to
avoid duplication of effort.

Article 20

Financial resources

1. Given the central importance of financing to the achievement of
the objective of the Convention, the Parties, taking into account their
capabilities, shall make every effort to ensure that adequate financial
resources are available for programmes to combat desertification and mitigate
the effects of drought.

2. In this connection, developed country Parties, while giving
priority to affected African country Parties without neglecting affected
developing country Parties in other regions, in accordance with article 7,
undertake to:

(a) mobilize substantial financial resources, including grants and
concessional loans, in order to support the implementation of programmes to
combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;

(b) promote the mobilization of adequate, timely and predictable
financial resources, including new and additional funding from the Global
Environment Facility of the agreed incremental costs of those activities
concerning desertification that relate to its four focal areas, in conformity
with the relevant provisions of the Instrument establishing the Global
Environment Facility;

(c) facilitate through international cooperation the transfer of
technology, knowledge and know-how; and

(d) explore, in cooperation with affected developing country Parties,
innovative methods and incentives for mobilizing and channelling resources,
including those of foundations, non-governmental organizations and other
private sector entities, particularly debt swaps and other innovative means
which increase financing by reducing the external debt burden of affected
developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa.

3. Affected developing country Parties, taking into account their
capabilities, undertake to mobilize adequate financial resources for the
implementation of their national action programmes.

4. In mobilizing financial resources, the Parties shall seek full use
and continued qualitative improvement of all national, bilateral and
multilateral funding sources and mechanisms, using consortia, joint programmes
and parallel financing, and shall seek to involve private sector funding
sources and mechanisms, including those of non-governmental organizations. To
this end, the Parties shall fully utilize the operational mechanisms developed
pursuant to article 14.

5. In order to mobilize the financial resources necessary for
affected developing country Parties to combat desertification and mitigate the
effects of drought, the Parties shall:

(a) rationalize and strengthen the management of resources already
allocated for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought
by using them more effectively and efficiently, assessing their successes and
shortcomings, removing hindrances to their effective use and, where necessary,
reorienting programmes in light of the integrated long-term approach adopted
pursuant to this Convention;

(b) give due priority and attention within the governing bodies of
multilateral financial institutions, facilities and funds, including regional
development banks and funds, to supporting affected developing country
Parties, particularly those in Africa, in activities which advance
implementation of the Convention, notably action programmes they undertake in
the framework of regional implementation annexes; and

(c) examine ways in which regional and subregional cooperation can be
strengthened to support efforts undertaken at the national level.

6. Other Parties are encouraged to provide, on a voluntary basis,
knowledge, know-how and techniques related to desertification and/or financial
resources to affected developing country Parties.

7. The full implementation by affected developing country Parties,
particularly those in Africa, of their obligations under the Convention will
be greatly assisted by the fulfilment by developed country Parties of their
obligations under the Convention, including in particular those regarding
financial resources and transfer of technology. In fulfilling their
obligations, developed country Parties should take fully into account that
economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first
priorities of affected developing country Parties, particularly those in
Africa.

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. This part provides references, in relation to United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

*This resource guide is updated frequently. However, if you notice something is wrong or not working, or any resources that should be added, please notify us in any of the "Leave a Comment" area.

Leave a Comment