Third Party

Third Party in the United States

A person (or entity) unnamed in a legal action who may be affected by or connected to it. Third-party situations are numerous and diverse. A defendant to a civil action, for example, may become a third-party plaintiff by bringing a complaint against yet another party. The third-party complaint alleges that the third party is liable for at least part of the initial plaintiffs claim. Similarly, contract provisions may be enforced by and yield benefits to third parties. A person who is not a formal party to an insurance contract may possess legally enforceable interests under the contract. It is also possible to establish standing to sue as a third party. In Singleton v. Wulff (428 U.S. 106: 1976), for example, the Supreme Court ruled that a group of physicians had standing to challenge a state policy excluding reimbursement of abortion costs under Medicaid. The physicians were a third party to the dispute between the state and those seeking Medicaid reimbursement. A key issue in this case was whether the physicians could establish standing by asserting the rights of their patients. The Court ruled that the abortion decision is one in which the physician is “intimately involved.” Thus, the physician is “uniquely qualified to litigate the State’s interference with . . . that decision.” See also Amicus Curiae (Civil Process) Standing (Civil Process).

Analysis and Relevance

Legal situations typically do not have a third-party dimension. The existence of a third party, however, complicates a case because it takes the case outside the more common “one-on-one” confrontation of plaintiff and defendant. In some instances, the third party may be the key. In United States v. Matlock (415 U.S. 164: 1974), for example, the Supreme Court upheld a consent search of a residence. The consent had been voluntarily obtained, but it had not been given by the person ultimately charged with a crime. Instead, it had been given by the person who shared the residence with him. Third-party involvement in a legal action may also take the form of amicus curiae participation. Amicus participants typically file briefs that attempt to demonstrate the broader implications of a case.

Notes and References

  1. Definition of Third Party from the American Law Dictionary, 1991, California

Third Party

A description about Third Party is available here: Any political party that is not one of the two parties that have dominated U.S. politics since the late 19th century — the Republican Party and the Democratic Party — and that receives a base of support and plays a role in influencing the outcome of an election is referred to as a third party.

Concept of Third Party in Political Science

The following is a very basic definition of Third Party in relation to the election system and the U.S Congress: A major party that exists for a period of time in a nation or state that usually has a two-party system

Third Party Beneficiaries (Warranties)

This section introduces, discusses and describes the basics of third party beneficiaries. Then, cross references and a brief overview about Warranties is provided. Finally, the subject of Sales in relation with third party beneficiaries is examined. Note that a list of cross references, bibliography and other resources appears at the end of this entry.

Resources

See Also

  • Legal Topics.
  • Further Reading (Articles)

    Party System Institutionalization without Parties: Evidence from Korea, Journal of East Asian Studies; January 1, 2014; Hellmann, Olli

    12 Parties in Bid to Create Alliance, The Kathmandu Post; January 22, 2014

    Parties Ignore Working Class in Manifestos, The Nation (Karachi, Pakistan); April 27, 2013

    Third-Parties: Site Standouts, Campaigns & Elections; October 1, 2000; Jalonick, Mary Clare

    Parties face new controls over campaign spending Election 99, The Scotsman; May 1, 1999; SEVERIN CARRELL Political Correspondent

    42 political parties to face EC action, The Kathmandu Post; January 29, 2012

    Party finances: 42 political parties to face EC action, The Kathmandu Post; January 29, 2012

    Party Reels after Loss in Taiwan, The Washington Times (Washington, DC); June 19, 2000; Halloran, Richard

    Parties without Partisans: Political change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. (Book Reviews)., West European Politics; January 1, 2002; Poguntke, Thomas

    Independence Party highly values Penny; The party Jesse Ventura put on the political map is pinning its hopes for the future on its likely gubernatorial candidate.(NEWS), Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN); July 1, 2002; Brunswick, Mark Smith, Dane

    ‘Party’ spirit moves aspiring Libyan leaders., Daily News Egypt (Egypt); February 29, 2012

    Parties on appeal.(Florida), Florida Bar Journal; May 1, 1999; Elligett, Raymond T., Jr. Scheb, John M.

    Party building and the 2004 elections.(Politics and Election), Synthesis/Regeneration; September 22, 2003; Webb, Philip

    Party System Institutionalization in Ukraine, Demokratizatsiya; June 22, 2013; Rybiy, Olena;

    Party-Goers Resist The Spending Pinch, US Fed News Service, Including US State News; October 17, 2008

    How parties die, Jerusalem Post; December 26, 2003; Bret Stephens

    Party accused in theft, Charleston Daily Mail; March 14, 2011; JENNIFER PELTZ

    Party stresses governance capability, China Daily; September 20, 2004

    Parties give top two primary 2 thumbs down, The Columbian (Vancouver, WA); September 5, 2008; KATHIE DURBIN

    Parties begin submitting Knesset lists, Jerusalem Post; December 5, 2012; LAHAV HARKOV

    Third Party

    Introduction to Third Party

    Third Party, in United States politics, a political party that appears as an alternative to the two main parties, the groups now known as Democrats and Republicans. Third parties have repeatedly arisen to express powerful currents of political feeling not addressed by the two-party system, but none has endured.” (1)

    Third Party

    A description about Third Party is available here: Any political party that is not one of the two parties that have dominated U.S. politics since the late 19th century — the Republican Party and the Democratic Party — and that receives a base of support and plays a role in influencing the outcome of an election is referred to as a third party.

    Concept of Third Party in Political Science

    The following is a very basic definition of Third Party in relation to the election system and the U.S Congress: A major party that exists for a period of time in a nation or state that usually has a two-party system

    Resources

    Notes and References

    Guide to Third Party

    Third Party: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

    Federal Primary Materials

    The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Third Party. This part provides references, in relation to Third Party, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

    Federal primary materials about Third Party by content types:

    Laws and Regulations

    US Constitution
    Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

    Federal Case Law and Court Materials

    U.S. Courts of Appeals
    United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

    Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

    Presidential Materials

    Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

    Executive Materials

    Federal Legislative History Materials

    Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Third Party and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Third Party or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

    State Administrative Materials and Resources

    State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Third Party and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Third Party. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Third Party should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

    State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

    State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Third Party when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

    Tools and Forms

    Law in Other Regions

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