Construction in United States Construction Definition

(Lat. construere, to put together). In practice. Determining the meaning and application as to the case in question of the provisions of a constitution, statute, will, or other instrument, or of an oral agreement. Drawing […]


Production in the United States United States Constitution According to the Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, about its article titled 407 PRODUCTIONUntil the transformation of the constitutional law of economic regulation, beginning in 1937, production described economic activities […]

Federal Reserve System

Federal Reserve System in the United States Introduction The Federal Reserve System, the central bank of the United States, administers and formulates the Nation’s credit and monetary policy. The Federal Reserve System (FRS) was established by the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 221), […]

Civil Rights

Civil Rights in the United States Civil Rights Definition The rights of a citizen; the rights of an individual as a citizen; the rights due from one citizen to another, the privation of which is a civil wrong, for which redress may be sought in a civil action. Also sometimes applied to the […]


Powers in the United States Copyright and Patent Powers in the Legislative Process The Congress's power, established in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8, to regulate the granting of copyrights and patents to the creators of artistic works and inventors of new technologies. The idea of copyrights […]


Vietnam in the United States Dien Bien Phu in the U.S. Legal History Summary Vietminh siege of 13,000 French soldiers in 1954 at a remote military outpost. The French surrender led to the 1956 elections designed to reunify Vietnam. Finding the law: Vietnam in the U.S. Code A collection of […]

North American Free Trade Agreement

North American Free Trade Agreement in the United States Introduction to the North American Free Trade Agreement The North American Free Trade Agreement was signed between the Government of the United States of America, the Government of Canada, and the Government of the United Mexican […]


Equity in the United States Decisions based on a judge's sense of fairness rather than strict common law standards. The equity model permits judges to issue remedies in civil cases based on equitable principles that are outside or that supplement common law. Some of the flexibility of equity […]


Treaties in the United States Legal Materials If the U.S. is a party to a treaty, you should be able to get the treaty without too much hassle. (For a discussion of treaties that the U.S. has not signed, see "Foreign Treaties" in this legal Encyclopedia) This section is divided […]

Forest Reserve Act

Forest Reserve Act in the United States Introduction to Forest Reserve Act, 1891 In the context of the legal history: First national forest conservation policy, authorized the president to set aside areas of land for national forests. Resources In the context of the legal history: See Also […]

Encomienda System

Encomienda System in the United States Encomienda System in the U.S. Legal History Summary The government in Spain gave away large tracts of conquered land in Spanish America, including whole villages of indigenous peoples, to court favorites, including many conquistadores. These new […]

American Exceptionalism

American Exceptionalism in the United States American Exceptionalism in the U.S. Legal History Summary Notion that America houses biologically superior people and can spread democracy to the rest of the world. An intellectual foundation of expansion and racism in the late nineteenth and early […]


Stamp in United States Stamp Definition An impression made by order of the government, on paper, which must be used in reducing certain contracts to writing, for the purpose of raising a revenue. See Starkie, Ev.; 1 Phil. Ev. 444. A paper bearing an impression or device authorized by law, and […]


ATLANTIC CHATER in the United States Introduction to ATLANTIC CHATER: (1941) In the context of the legal history: The Atlantic Charter was a joint statement of peace aims espoused by Winston Churchill of Britain and F. D. Roosevelt of the United States. The agreement, which was negotiated off […]


Dicta in the United States Dicta Background Resources See Also Legal Topics. Further Reading (Articles) Dicta, Schmicta: Theory versus Practice in Lower Court Decision Making, William and Mary Law Review; May 1, 2013; Klein, David Devins, Neal Defining Dicta, Stanford Law Review; March 1, […]

Intolerable Acts

Intolerable Acts in the United States Introduction to Intolerable Acts: (1774) In the context of the legal history: Coercive Acts. Four corrective actions passed by the British government in retaliation for acts of colonial defiance. They became the justification for assembling the First […]

Morrill Land Grant Act

Morrill Land Grant Act in the United States Introduction to Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) In the context of the legal history: The legislation gave states that had remained in the Union 30,000 acres, multiplied by the number of congressmen representing that state, to establish agricultural and […]

Enclosure Movement

Enclosure Movement in the United States Enclosure Movement in the U.S. Legal History Summary As the demand for wool heightened in England during the sixteenth century because of the emerging textile industry, Parliament passed laws that allowed profit-seeking landowners to fence in their open […]

Jones Act, 1916

Jones Act, 1916 in the United States Introduction to Jones Act, 1916 (Philippine) In the context of the legal history: Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years. Resources In the […]


Chancellor in United States Chancellor Definition In the United States. The presiding judge of a court of chancery. In England. A judicial officer of the king; a bishop or other high dignitary. See Chancellor of the Exchequer, etc Chancellor in Foreign Legal Encyclopedias LinkDescription […]

Coney Island

Coney Island in the United States Coney Island in the U.S. Legal History Summary Popular site of New York amusement parks opening in 1890s, attracting working class Americans with rides and games celebrating abandon and instant gratification.

Equal Protection

Equal Protection in the United States Equal Protection Clause Prohibition of discrimination and the use of unreasonable classifications. The protection is drawn from the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This clause was added to the Constitution after the Civil War. At the […]

Currency Act

Currency Act in the United States Introduction to Currency Act: (1764) In the context of the legal history: Parliament assumed control of the colonial currency system. It banned the issue of any new bills and the re-issue of existing currency. Parliament preferred a hard currency System based […]

Columbian Exchange

Columbian Exchange in the United States Columbian Exchange in the U.S. Legal History Summary The process of transferring plants, animals, foods, diseases, wealth, and culture between Europe and the Americas, beginning at the time of Christopher Columbus and continuing throughout the era of […]


Hessians in the United States Hessians in the U.S. Legal History Summary Six German principalities provided 30,000 soldiers to Great Britain to fight against the American rebels during the War for Independence. More than half of these troops-for-hire came from Hesse-Cassel. Hessian thus would […]

First 100 Days

First 100 Days in the United States First 100 Days in the U.S. Legal History Summary President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s first 100 days in office, when he proposed and Congress passed fifteen major bills that reshaped the U.S. economy.

Electric Trolley

Electric Trolley in the United States Electric Trolley in the U.S. Legal History Summary Public transportation for urban neighborhoods, using electric current from overhead wires. Between 1888 and 1902, 97 percent of urban transit mileage had been electrified.

Black Power

Black Power in the United States Black Power in the U.S. Legal History Summary A rallying cry for more militant blacks advocated by younger leaders like Stokely Carmichael and H. Rap Brown, beginning in the mid-1960s. It called for African Americans to form their own economic, political, and […]