Probation in the United States A criminal sentence that allows a person to return to the community under supervised release. Probation is an alternative to imprisonment and is applied to almost two-thirds of sentenced offenders in the United States. Control is maintained over the offender by […]


Child in United States Child Definition

The immediate progeny of human parents; offspring born to such parents. 262 111. 183; 200 111. 401. The son or daughter, in relation to the father or mother; the correlative of "parent." A young person- of either sex. The age limit of […]


Appeal in the United States A request to an appellate or superior court to review a final judgment made in a lower court. Appellate jurisdiction is the power conferred upon appeals courts to conduct such a review. It empowers the court to set aside or modify the lower court decision. An […]


Restitution in the United States Repayment to a victim of losses suffered at the hands of a criminal offender. The idea of restitution is that no person ought to be enriched by misconduct against another. While restitution has been a component of the American justice system from the […]


Transfer in United States Transfer Definition

(Lat. tra,ns, over, fero, to bear or carry) . The act by which the owner of a thing delivers it to another person, with the intent of passing the rights which he has in it to the latter; 1 Ala. 669; 36 Conn, 426.

Transfer in […]

Juvenile Justice

Juvenile Justice in the United States Introduction Youth under the age of 18 who are accused of committing a delinquent or criminal act are typically processed through a juvenile justice system. States, however, have the right to set lower age thresholds for processing youth through the […]


Certification in the United States A request to a higher court by a lower court for guidance on a legal question relating to a pending case. Request for certification in the federal courts can come from either the U.S. court of appeals or the U.S. district court. The U.S. court of claims may […]


Counsel in United States Counsel Definition

The counsellors who are associated in the management of a particular cause, or who act as legal advisers in reference to any matter requiring legal knowledge and judgment. The term is used both as a singular and plural noun, to denote one or […]


Placement in the United States Alternative placement in Juvenile Law In this context, Alternative placement information is available through this American legal Encyclopedia. Cause of Action by Employment Agency to Recover Placement Fee: an Overview This section examines this type of action. […]


Adjudication in the United States The judicial act of making a judgment in a legal action. Adjudication involves formal decision making processes as a court moves to a final judgment in a lawsuit. Adjudication requires, at minimum, notice to all parties that a decision is being sought, and an […]


Complaint in the United States A charging method generally reserved for less serious criminal violations. A complaint may also be used in civil cases in which the assertion of a claim is made to initiate the legal action. In criminal cases, a complaint is submitted to a judicial officer and […]

Due Process

Due Process in the United States US Main Decisions: 1. Record – Fernandez – Vargas v. Gonzales 2. Fernandez-Vargas v. Gonzales 3. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld 4. United States v. Noriega 5. Islamic American Relief Agency v. Gonzales 6. Al-Marri v. Wright 7. El-Masri v. United States 8. Brazil […]


Adult in United States Adult Definition In Civil Lav/. A male infant who has attained the age of fourteen; a female infant who has attained the age of twelve. To be distinguished from full age in the civil law, which was twenty-five years. See Age. Domat, Civ. Law, tit. 2, § 2, note 8. In […]


House in United States House Definition In a general sense, a building or shed intended or used as a shelter or habitation for animals of any kind; but appropriately a building or edifice for the habitation of man; a dwelling place. Webster, quoted in 11 Abb. Pr. (N. Y.) 292. Several […]


Parole in the United States Release of a prisoner prior to the end of a criminal sentence. The release of a prisoner on parole is conditional. The person is supervised during the release period by a parole officer. Failure to conform to the conditions of parole results in its revocation and […]


Juvenile in the United States Juvenile Waivers to Adult Court in relation to Crime and Race Juvenile Waivers to Adult Court is included in the Encyclopedia of Race and Crime (1), beginning with: Juvenile waiver is a process that permits transfer of jurisdiction over juveniles to the adult […]

Status Offense

Status Offense in the United States A kind of violation or offense that is defined by the character or condition of the offender. Vagrancy, for example, is a status crime. A vagrant is a person who has no visible means of support. Status crimes or offenses are most commonly used in connection […]

Service Plan

Service Plan in the United States Individualized service plan or individual service plan in Juvenile Law In this context, Individualized service plan or individual service plan information is available through this American legal Encyclopedia.


Resident in United States Resident Definition One who has his residence (q. V.) in a place. Resident in Foreign Legal Encyclopedias LinkDescription Resident, Resident in the World Legal Encyclopedia., Resident, Resident in the European Legal Encyclopedia., Resident, Resident in the Asian […]

Length of Stay

Length of Stay in the United States Length of Stay Guidelines in Juvenile Law In this context, Length of Stay Guidelines information is available through this American legal Encyclopedia. Length of Stay or LOS in Juvenile Law In this context, Length of Stay or LOS information is available […]


Acquittal in the United States Formal certification that a person is not guilty of a criminal charge. An acquittal is a finding of fact by a jury or a judge that the state has not proven beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the charged offense. A case dismissed before trial […]