Sulfur Dioxide

Sulfur Dioxide in the United States

Sulfur Dioxide (S02) in Environmental Law

A chemical compound made of

sulfur and oxygen. A common air pollutant, sulfur dioxide is an irritant and a major cause of acid rain. Power plants emit the largest amount of sulfur dioxide, which results largely from combustion of fossil fuels, particularly lower grades of coal. Sulfur dioxide is one of the criteria pollutants, so it is included in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards and regulated under the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established a new program specifically geared to reduce sulfur dioxide and ease the problem of acid rain.

Superfund The fund established by Congress in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act to enable the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites. The initial amount in the fund was $1.6 billion, and that was increased to $8.5 billion in the 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. Money to support the Superfund is obtained through taxes on receipt of hazardous waste at treatment/storage/disposal facilities [see treatment/storage/disposal facility], chemical feedstocks, and refined or crude oil.

Superfund is also a nickname for the statute itself (the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act). Sites listed as national priorities for cleanup are often called Superfund sites, because the EPA uses the Superfund to support most of the work done at those sites.

The use of the Superfund has shifted somewhat since it was first established. To preserve the money for cleanups at sites where no one can finance the cleanup, the EPA emphasizes enforcement and payment for work by the potentially responsible parties if they exist. The Superfund is used to address emergency removals and orphan sites. Persons who sent waste to, owned or operated a Superfund site, or arranged for disposal at a Superfund site are identified as early in the cleanup process as possible and are often assigned tasks. In situations where the Superfund must be used, the EPA tries to get the money back by bringing lawsuits. Although Superfund may be used for mixed funding (the fund pays for part of the Superfund site work), the EPA prefers to avoid that option.
Based on “Environment and the Law. A Dictionary”.

Sulfur Dioxide: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Sulfur Dioxide. This part provides references, in relation to Sulfur Dioxide, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Sulfur Dioxide by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Sulfur Dioxide and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Sulfur Dioxide or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Sulfur Dioxide and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Sulfur Dioxide. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Sulfur Dioxide should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Sulfur Dioxide when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

*This resource guide is updated frequently. However, if you notice something is wrong or not working, or any resources that should be added, please notify us in any of the "Leave a Comment" area.

Leave a Comment