Segregation in the United States
- 1 Segregation in the United States
United States Constitution
According to the Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, about its article titled “Segregation”, from the beginning, racial discrimination in America has been a national phenomenon. Jim Crow was a southern name for the segregation of the races as part of a system of caste. But segregation antedated Jim Crow, and it began in the North and the West. (read more about Constitutional law entries here).
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Segregation (Prisoner Rights)
This section introduces, discusses and describes the basics of segregation. Then, cross references and a brief overview about Prisoner Rights is provided. Finally, the subject of Civil Rights Law in relation with segregation is examined. Note that a list of cross references, bibliography and other resources appears at the end of this entry.
- Legal Topics
- African National Congress
- Civil liberties
- Civil Rights
- Civil Rights Movement
- Martin Luther King
- Malcolm X
- Thurgood Marshall
- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
- School Segregation
- Civil Rights Act of 1875
- Civil Rights Act of 1964
- Muller v. Oregon
- Plessy v. Ferguson
- Resegregation of Schools
- Residential Segregation
- Separate but Equal Doctrine
- School Busing
- Minority Rights Civil Rights For Blacks
Further Reading (Books)
“Banton, Michael 1957 West African City: A Study of Tribal Life in Freetown. Oxford Univ. Press.
Beals, Ralph L. 1955 Indian-Mestizo-White Relations in Spanish America. Pages 412–432 in Conference on Race Relations in World Perspective, Honolulu, 1954, Race Relations in World Perspective: Papers …. Edited by Andrew W. Lind. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaii Press.
Davison, R. B. 1963 The Distribution of Immigrant Groups in London. Race 5, no. 2:56–59.Deakin, Nicholas 1964 Residential Segregation in Britain: A Comparative Note. Race 6, no. 1:18–26.
Deutsch, Morton; and Collins, Mary E. 1951 Interracial Housing: A Psychological Evaluation of a Social Experiment. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.
Drake, ST. Clair; and Cayton, Horace R. (1945) 1962 Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. 2 vols., rev. & enl. New York: Harcourt.
Duncan, Otis Dudley; Cuzzort, Ray P.; and Duncan, Beverly 1961 Statistical Geography: Problems in Analyzing Areal Data. New York: Free Press.
Duncan, Otis Dudley; and Duncan, Beverly 1955 A Methodological Analysis of Segregation Indexes. American Sociological Review 20:210–217.
Freeman, Linton C.; and Pilger, John 1964 Segregation: A micro-measure Based Upon Compactness. Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Residential Segregation Study , October 19.
Freeman, Linton C.; and Pilger, John 1965 Segregation: A Micro-measure Based Upon Well-mixedness. Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Residential Segregation Study , February 12.
Glass, Ruth (1960) 1961 London’s Newcomers: The West Indian Migrants. Centre for Urban Studies, University College, London, Report No. 1. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press. → First published as Newcomers: The West Indians in London. Chapters 2 and 3 analyze geographical distribution and discrimination in housing.”
Further Reading (Books 2)
“Glazer, Nathan; and Moynihan, Daniel P. 1963 Beyond the Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and the Irish of New York City. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press.
Gordon, Milton M. 1961 Assimilation in America: Theory and Reality. Tuedalus 90:263–285.
Gordon, Milton M. 1964 Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origin. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
Grier, George; and Grier, Eunice 1964 Obstacles to Desegregation in America’s Urban Areas. Race 6, no. 1:3–17.
Hodgkin, Thomas L. 1956 Nationalism in Colonial Africa. London: Muller. → Part II, Chapter 1 deals with the new towns of Africa.
Johnson, Charles S. 1943 Patterns of Negro Segregation. New York: Harper.
Kuper, Leo; Watts, Hilstan; and Davies, Ronald L. 1958 Durban: A Study in Racial Ecology. London: Cape; New York: Columbia Univ. Press. → A study of compulsory segregation in South Africa.
LE Tourneau, Roger 1957 Les villes musulmanes de ,’Afrique du Nord. Algiers: Maison des Livres.
Lieberson, Stanley 1963 Ethnic Patterns in American Cities. New York: Free Press.
Lincoln, Charles Eric 1961 The Black Muslims in America. Boston: Beacon. & A paperback edition was published in 1962.
McEntIRE, Davis 1960 Residence and Race: Final and Comprehensive Report to the Commission on Race and Housing. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.
Osofsky, Gilbert 1966 Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto. New York: Harper.
Park, Robert E. (1916–1939) 1952 Human Communities: The City and Human Ecology. Collected Papers, Vol. 2. Glencoe, III.: Free Press.”
Further Reading (Articles)
“Park, Robert E.; Burgess, Ernest W.; and Mckenzie, Roderick D. 1925 The City. Univ. of Chicago Press.
Poll, Solomon 1962 The Hasidic Community of Williamsburg. New York: Free Press.
Schnore, Leo F. 1965 The Urban Scene: Human Ecology and Demography. New York: Free Press.
Schnore, Leo F.; and Evenson, Philip C. 1966 Segregation in Southern Cities. American Journal of Sociology 72:58–67.
Shevsky, Eshref; and Bell, Wendell 1955 Social Area Analysis: Theory, Illustrative Application, and Computational Procedures. Stanford Univ. Press.
Sjoberg, Gideon 1960 The Preindustrial City: Past and Present. Glencoe, III.: Free Press.
Southall, Aidan (editor) 1961 Social Change in Modern Africa. Oxford Univ. Press.
Taeuber, Karl E.; and Taeubeb, Alma F. 1965 Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Change. Chicago: Aldine.
Theodorson, George A. (editor) 1961 Studies in Human Ecology. Evanston, III.: Row, Peterson. → The ecological context of segregation.
Van Den Berghe, Pierre L. 1960 Distance Mechanisms of Stratification. Sociology and Social Research 44: 155–164.
Wilner, Daniel M.; Walkley, Rosabelle P.; and Cook, Stuart W. 1955 Human Relations in Interracial Housing: A Study of the Contact Hypothesis. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.
Wirth, Louis 1928 The Ghetto. Univ. of Chicago Press.”
More Related Articles
“Cell, John W. The Highest Stage of White Supremacy: The Origins of Segregation in South Africa and the American South. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
Fredrickson, George M. The Comparative Imagination: On the History of Racism, Nationalism, and Social Movements. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997.
Hamilton, Charles V., et al., eds. Beyond Racism: Race and Inequality in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Boulder, Colo., and London: Lynne Rienner, 2001.
Kirk, Joyce F. Making a Voice: African Resistance to Segregation in South Africa. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.
Lapping, Brian. Apartheid: A History. New York: George Braziller, 1987.
Marx, Anthony W. Making Race and Nation: A Comparison of South Africa, the United States, and Brazil. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Nascimento, Abdias do, and Elisa Larkin-Nascimento. Africans in Brazil: A Pan-African Perspective. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1992.
Smith, John David. When Did Southern Segregation Begin? New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2002.
Vaughan, Alden T. Roots of American Racism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Woodward, C. Vann. 1955. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Reprint, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Cassandra Rachel Veney” “Baldwin-Ragaven, Laurel, Leslie London, and Jeanelle De Gruchy. 2000. Learning From Our Apartheid Past: Human Rights Challenges for Health Professionals in Contemporary South Africa. Ethnicity and Health 5 (3/4): 227–241.
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2003. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Christie, Kenneth. 2000. The South African Truth Commission. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Collins, Chiquita A., and David R. Williams. 1999. Segregation and Mortality: The Deadly Effects of Racism? Sociological Forum 14 (3): 495–523.
Cornwall, Jo Anne. 1986. The United States and South Africa: History, Civil Rights and the Legal and Cultural Vulnerability of Blacks. Phylon 47 (4): 285–293.
Feagin, Joe R. 2006. Systemic Racism: A Theory of Oppression. New York: Routledge.
Feagin, Joe R., and Karyn D. McKinney. 2003. The Many Costs of Racism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Fourie, Ginn J. A. 2000. The Psychology of Perpetrators of ‘Political’ Violence in South Africa—A Personal Experience. Ethnicity & Health 5 (3/4): 283–289.
Gibson, James L. 2004. Overcoming Apartheid: Can Truth Reconcile a Divided Nation? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Kennedy, Stetson. 1959. Jim Crow Guide to the U.S.A: The Laws, Customs, and Etiquette Governing the Conduct of Nonwhites and Other Minorities as Second-Class Citizens. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
Massey, Douglas S., and Nancy A. Denton. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.” “Packard, Jerrold. 2002. American Nightmare: The History of Jim Crow. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Patterson, James T. 2002. Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Smythe, Hugh H. 1948. The Concept of Jim Crow. Social Forces 27 (1): 45–48.
Verdun, Vincene. 2005. The Big Disconnect Between Segregation and Integration. The Negro Educational Review 56 (1): 67–82.
Williams, David R., Allen Herman, Ronald C. Kessler, et al. 2004. The South Africa Stress and Health Study: Rationale and Design. Metabolic Brain Disease 19 (1/2): 135–147.
Joe R. Feagin
Ruth Thompson-Miller” “Kerber, Linda. No Constitutional Right to Be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.
Kousser, J. Morgan. “The Supremacy of Equal Rights’: The Struggle Against Racial Discrimination in Antebellum Massachusetts and the Foundations of the Fourteenth Amendment.” Northwestern University Law Review 82 (Summer 1988): 941–1010.
Welke, Barbara Y. “When All the Women Were White, and All the Blacks Were Men: Gender, Class, Race and the Road to Plessy, 1855–1914.” Law and History Review 13 (1995): 261–316.
Woodward, C. Vann. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. 3d rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.
Mark V.Tushnet” “Segregation of Powders during Gravity Flow through Vertical Pipes, Pharmaceutical Technology; February 1, 2004; Liss, Elizabeth D Conway, Stephen L Zega, James A Glasser, Benjamin J
Analysis: Segregation in America, NPR Talk of the Nation; May 10, 2001; JUAN WILLIAMS
Residential segregation of immigrants in France: an overview, Population & Societies; April 1, 2011; Shon, Jean-Louis Pan Ké
Segregation in Cities and Suburbs: Old Trends and New. AScribe Law News Service; February 26, 2004
Segregation of Beaufort Sea beluga whales during the open-water season. Canadian Journal of Zoology; December 1, 2006; Loseto, L.L. Richard, P. Stern, G.A. Orr, J. Ferguson, S.H.
Residential Segregation, Encyclopedia of Population; January 1, 2003
4: Occupational segregation.(sex discrimination in the labor market), Foundations and Trends in Microeconomics; October 1, 2006; Hersch, Joni
Racial segregation and longevity among African Americans: an individual-level analysis.(Measurement Issues in Social Determinants), Health Services Research; December 1, 2003; LaVeist, Thomas A.
The Segregation of Elements in High-Refractory-Content Single-Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloys, JOM; September 1, 2004; Caldwell, E C Fela, F J Fuchs, G E
Socio-spatial segregation in Metropolitan Lima, Peru. Journal of Latin American Geography; March 22, 2007; Peters, Paul A. Skop, Emily H
Segregation of Women and Aboriginal People within Canada’s Forest Sector by Industry and Occupation, The Canadian Journal of Native Studies; January 1, 2006; Mills, Suzanne E.
How economic segregation affects children’s educational attainment *. Social Forces; September 1, 2002; Mayer, Susan E.
Occupational Segregation, Encyclopedia of Race and Racism; January 1, 2008
Residential segregation and the transformation of home mortgage lending.(Report), Social Forces; December 1, 2007; Bond, Carolyn Williams, Richard
Occupational Gender Segregation in Canada, 1981-1996: Overall, Vertical and Horizontal Segregation, The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology; May 1, 2003; Brooks, Bradley Jarman, Jennifer Blackburn, Robert M.
Unamerican Tail: Of Segregation and Multicultural Education, Albany Law Review; September 22, 2000; Munroe, Maurice E. R.
Sex segregation in U.S. manufacturing. Industrial and Labor Relations Review; April 1, 1998; Carrington, William J. Troske, Kenneth R.
Avoid Bulk Solids Segregation Problems, Chemical Engineering Progress; April 1, 2012; Maynard, Eric
Sex segregation in the workplace. Science; April 26, 1985; Marrett, Cora Bagley
Clinical Practice in Segregation: The Crucial Role of Psychologists, Corrections Today; February 1, 2005; Magaletta, Philip R. Ax, Robert K. Patry, Marc W. Dietz, Erik F.”