Segregation in the United States


United States Constitution

According to the Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, about its article titled “Segregation”, from the beginning, racial discrimination in America has been a national phenomenon. Jim Crow was a southern name for the segregation of the races as part of a system of caste. But segregation antedated Jim Crow, and it began in the North and the West. (read more about Constitutional law entries here).

Some Constitutional Law Popular Entries

Segregation (Prisoner Rights)

This section introduces, discusses and describes the basics of segregation. Then, cross references and a brief overview about Prisoner Rights is provided. Finally, the subject of Civil Rights Law in relation with segregation is examined. Note that a list of cross references, bibliography and other resources appears at the end of this entry.


See Also

  • Legal Topics
  • Apartheid
  • Prejudice
  • Race
  • Racism
  • African National Congress
  • Citizenship
  • Civil liberties
  • Civil Rights
  • Civil Rights Movement
  • Integration
  • Martin Luther King
  • Malcolm X
  • Thurgood Marshall
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
  • School Segregation
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Muller v. Oregon
  • Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Resegregation of Schools
  • Residential Segregation
  • Separate but Equal Doctrine
  • School Busing
  • Minority Rights Civil Rights For Blacks
  • Desegregation

Further Reading (Books)

“Banton, Michael 1957 West African City: A Study of Tribal Life in Freetown. Oxford Univ. Press.

Beals, Ralph L. 1955 Indian-Mestizo-White Relations in Spanish America. Pages 412–432 in Conference on Race Relations in World Perspective, Honolulu, 1954, Race Relations in World Perspective: Papers …. Edited by Andrew W. Lind. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaii Press.

Davison, R. B. 1963 The Distribution of Immigrant Groups in London. Race 5, no. 2:56–59.Deakin, Nicholas 1964 Residential Segregation in Britain: A Comparative Note. Race 6, no. 1:18–26.

Deutsch, Morton; and Collins, Mary E. 1951 Interracial Housing: A Psychological Evaluation of a Social Experiment. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

Drake, ST. Clair; and Cayton, Horace R. (1945) 1962 Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. 2 vols., rev. & enl. New York: Harcourt.

Duncan, Otis Dudley; Cuzzort, Ray P.; and Duncan, Beverly 1961 Statistical Geography: Problems in Analyzing Areal Data. New York: Free Press.

Duncan, Otis Dudley; and Duncan, Beverly 1955 A Methodological Analysis of Segregation Indexes. American Sociological Review 20:210–217.

Freeman, Linton C.; and Pilger, John 1964 Segregation: A micro-measure Based Upon Compactness. Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Residential Segregation Study [1964], October 19.

Freeman, Linton C.; and Pilger, John 1965 Segregation: A Micro-measure Based Upon Well-mixedness. Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Residential Segregation Study [1965], February 12.

Glass, Ruth (1960) 1961 London’s Newcomers: The West Indian Migrants. Centre for Urban Studies, University College, London, Report No. 1. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press. → First published as Newcomers: The West Indians in London. Chapters 2 and 3 analyze geographical distribution and discrimination in housing.”

Further Reading (Books 2)

“Glazer, Nathan; and Moynihan, Daniel P. 1963 Beyond the Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and the Irish of New York City. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press.

Gordon, Milton M. 1961 Assimilation in America: Theory and Reality. Tuedalus 90:263–285.

Gordon, Milton M. 1964 Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origin. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Grier, George; and Grier, Eunice 1964 Obstacles to Desegregation in America’s Urban Areas. Race 6, no. 1:3–17.

Hodgkin, Thomas L. 1956 Nationalism in Colonial Africa. London: Muller. → Part II, Chapter 1 deals with the new towns of Africa.

Johnson, Charles S. 1943 Patterns of Negro Segregation. New York: Harper.

Kuper, Leo; Watts, Hilstan; and Davies, Ronald L. 1958 Durban: A Study in Racial Ecology. London: Cape; New York: Columbia Univ. Press. → A study of compulsory segregation in South Africa.

LE Tourneau, Roger 1957 Les villes musulmanes de ,’Afrique du Nord. Algiers: Maison des Livres.

Lieberson, Stanley 1963 Ethnic Patterns in American Cities. New York: Free Press.

Lincoln, Charles Eric 1961 The Black Muslims in America. Boston: Beacon. & A paperback edition was published in 1962.

McEntIRE, Davis 1960 Residence and Race: Final and Comprehensive Report to the Commission on Race and Housing. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.

Osofsky, Gilbert 1966 Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto. New York: Harper.

Park, Robert E. (1916–1939) 1952 Human Communities: The City and Human Ecology. Collected Papers, Vol. 2. Glencoe, III.: Free Press.”

Further Reading (Articles)

“Park, Robert E.; Burgess, Ernest W.; and Mckenzie, Roderick D. 1925 The City. Univ. of Chicago Press.

Poll, Solomon 1962 The Hasidic Community of Williamsburg. New York: Free Press.

Schnore, Leo F. 1965 The Urban Scene: Human Ecology and Demography. New York: Free Press.

Schnore, Leo F.; and Evenson, Philip C. 1966 Segregation in Southern Cities. American Journal of Sociology 72:58–67.

Shevsky, Eshref; and Bell, Wendell 1955 Social Area Analysis: Theory, Illustrative Application, and Computational Procedures. Stanford Univ. Press.

Sjoberg, Gideon 1960 The Preindustrial City: Past and Present. Glencoe, III.: Free Press.

Southall, Aidan (editor) 1961 Social Change in Modern Africa. Oxford Univ. Press.

Taeuber, Karl E.; and Taeubeb, Alma F. 1965 Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Change. Chicago: Aldine.

Theodorson, George A. (editor) 1961 Studies in Human Ecology. Evanston, III.: Row, Peterson. → The ecological context of segregation.

Van Den Berghe, Pierre L. 1960 Distance Mechanisms of Stratification. Sociology and Social Research 44: 155–164.

Wilner, Daniel M.; Walkley, Rosabelle P.; and Cook, Stuart W. 1955 Human Relations in Interracial Housing: A Study of the Contact Hypothesis. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

Wirth, Louis 1928 The Ghetto. Univ. of Chicago Press.”

More Related Articles

“Cell, John W. The Highest Stage of White Supremacy: The Origins of Segregation in South Africa and the American South. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Fredrickson, George M. The Comparative Imagination: On the History of Racism, Nationalism, and Social Movements. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997.

Hamilton, Charles V., et al., eds. Beyond Racism: Race and Inequality in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Boulder, Colo., and London: Lynne Rienner, 2001.

Kirk, Joyce F. Making a Voice: African Resistance to Segregation in South Africa. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.

Lapping, Brian. Apartheid: A History. New York: George Braziller, 1987.

Marx, Anthony W. Making Race and Nation: A Comparison of South Africa, the United States, and Brazil. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Nascimento, Abdias do, and Elisa Larkin-Nascimento. Africans in Brazil: A Pan-African Perspective. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1992.

Smith, John David. When Did Southern Segregation Begin? New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2002.

Vaughan, Alden T. Roots of American Racism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Woodward, C. Vann. 1955. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Reprint, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Cassandra Rachel Veney” “Baldwin-Ragaven, Laurel, Leslie London, and Jeanelle De Gruchy. 2000. Learning From Our Apartheid Past: Human Rights Challenges for Health Professionals in Contemporary South Africa. Ethnicity and Health 5 (3/4): 227–241.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2003. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Christie, Kenneth. 2000. The South African Truth Commission. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Collins, Chiquita A., and David R. Williams. 1999. Segregation and Mortality: The Deadly Effects of Racism? Sociological Forum 14 (3): 495–523.

Cornwall, Jo Anne. 1986. The United States and South Africa: History, Civil Rights and the Legal and Cultural Vulnerability of Blacks. Phylon 47 (4): 285–293.

Feagin, Joe R. 2006. Systemic Racism: A Theory of Oppression. New York: Routledge.

Feagin, Joe R., and Karyn D. McKinney. 2003. The Many Costs of Racism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Fourie, Ginn J. A. 2000. The Psychology of Perpetrators of ‘Political’ Violence in South Africa—A Personal Experience. Ethnicity & Health 5 (3/4): 283–289.

Gibson, James L. 2004. Overcoming Apartheid: Can Truth Reconcile a Divided Nation? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Kennedy, Stetson. 1959. Jim Crow Guide to the U.S.A: The Laws, Customs, and Etiquette Governing the Conduct of Nonwhites and Other Minorities as Second-Class Citizens. London: Lawrence and Wishart.

Massey, Douglas S., and Nancy A. Denton. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.” “Packard, Jerrold. 2002. American Nightmare: The History of Jim Crow. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Patterson, James T. 2002. Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Smythe, Hugh H. 1948. The Concept of Jim Crow. Social Forces 27 (1): 45–48.

Verdun, Vincene. 2005. The Big Disconnect Between Segregation and Integration. The Negro Educational Review 56 (1): 67–82.

Williams, David R., Allen Herman, Ronald C. Kessler, et al. 2004. The South Africa Stress and Health Study: Rationale and Design. Metabolic Brain Disease 19 (1/2): 135–147.

Joe R. Feagin

Ruth Thompson-Miller” “Kerber, Linda. No Constitutional Right to Be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.

Kousser, J. Morgan. “The Supremacy of Equal Rights’: The Struggle Against Racial Discrimination in Antebellum Massachusetts and the Foundations of the Fourteenth Amendment.” Northwestern University Law Review 82 (Summer 1988): 941–1010.

Welke, Barbara Y. “When All the Women Were White, and All the Blacks Were Men: Gender, Class, Race and the Road to Plessy, 1855–1914.” Law and History Review 13 (1995): 261–316.

Woodward, C. Vann. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. 3d rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Mark V.Tushnet” “Segregation of Powders during Gravity Flow through Vertical Pipes, Pharmaceutical Technology; February 1, 2004; Liss, Elizabeth D Conway, Stephen L Zega, James A Glasser, Benjamin J
Analysis: Segregation in America, NPR Talk of the Nation; May 10, 2001; JUAN WILLIAMS
Residential segregation of immigrants in France: an overview, Population & Societies; April 1, 2011; Shon, Jean-Louis Pan Ké
Segregation in Cities and Suburbs: Old Trends and New. AScribe Law News Service; February 26, 2004
Segregation of Beaufort Sea beluga whales during the open-water season. Canadian Journal of Zoology; December 1, 2006; Loseto, L.L. Richard, P. Stern, G.A. Orr, J. Ferguson, S.H.
Residential Segregation, Encyclopedia of Population; January 1, 2003
4: Occupational segregation.(sex discrimination in the labor market), Foundations and Trends in Microeconomics; October 1, 2006; Hersch, Joni
Racial segregation and longevity among African Americans: an individual-level analysis.(Measurement Issues in Social Determinants), Health Services Research; December 1, 2003; LaVeist, Thomas A.
The Segregation of Elements in High-Refractory-Content Single-Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloys, JOM; September 1, 2004; Caldwell, E C Fela, F J Fuchs, G E
Socio-spatial segregation in Metropolitan Lima, Peru. Journal of Latin American Geography; March 22, 2007; Peters, Paul A. Skop, Emily H
Segregation of Women and Aboriginal People within Canada’s Forest Sector by Industry and Occupation, The Canadian Journal of Native Studies; January 1, 2006; Mills, Suzanne E.
How economic segregation affects children’s educational attainment *. Social Forces; September 1, 2002; Mayer, Susan E.
Occupational Segregation, Encyclopedia of Race and Racism; January 1, 2008
Residential segregation and the transformation of home mortgage lending.(Report), Social Forces; December 1, 2007; Bond, Carolyn Williams, Richard
Occupational Gender Segregation in Canada, 1981-1996: Overall, Vertical and Horizontal Segregation, The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology; May 1, 2003; Brooks, Bradley Jarman, Jennifer Blackburn, Robert M.
Unamerican Tail: Of Segregation and Multicultural Education, Albany Law Review; September 22, 2000; Munroe, Maurice E. R.
Sex segregation in U.S. manufacturing. Industrial and Labor Relations Review; April 1, 1998; Carrington, William J. Troske, Kenneth R.
Avoid Bulk Solids Segregation Problems, Chemical Engineering Progress; April 1, 2012; Maynard, Eric
Sex segregation in the workplace. Science; April 26, 1985; Marrett, Cora Bagley
Clinical Practice in Segregation: The Crucial Role of Psychologists, Corrections Today; February 1, 2005; Magaletta, Philip R. Ax, Robert K. Patry, Marc W. Dietz, Erik F.”

Segregation: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Segregation. This part provides references, in relation to Segregation, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Segregation by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Segregation and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Segregation or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Segregation and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Segregation. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Segregation should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Segregation when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

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