Secondary Treatment

Secondary Treatment in the United States

Secondary Treatment in Environmental Law

Processes used by municipal wastewater treatment plants to reduce the amount of pollution released to surface waters. Primary treatment is simply removal of solids, done by flotation or settlement; secondary treatment usually involves the use of bacteria to break down the pollutants, followed by disinfection.

Now that the wastewater treatment plants are required to meet secondary treatment standards, a third level of treatment, tertiary treatment will be added. It involves further removal of suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus. See also Clean Water Act; National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System; publicly owned treatment works; water pollution control technologies.
Based on “Environment and the Law. A Dictionary”.

Secondary Treatment: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Secondary Treatment. This part provides references, in relation to Secondary Treatment, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Secondary Treatment by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Secondary Treatment and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Secondary Treatment or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Secondary Treatment and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Secondary Treatment. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Secondary Treatment should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Secondary Treatment when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

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