Sanctions on China

U.S. Sanctions against China in the United States

General Background

The entries in this legal Ecyclopeida examines the main characteristics of the current and developing sanctions regime as the following:

  • the growing prominence of U.S. Congressionally-mandated sanctions programs;
  • the complex interaction of economic sanctions and trade policy; and
  • the marked increase in multilateral sanctions programs in which the U.S. is a participant.

In-depth analysis of major U.S. sanctions programs (those imposed on Cuba, Libya, and Iraq, as well as several other lesser programs) demostrate the practical application of specific elements of each sanctions program.

U.S. Economic Sanctions against China

Since 1989, U.S.-China relations have seesawed between cooperation and confrontation. Human rights, arms proliferation, the status of Taiwan and Tibet, and the use of prison labor for export goods, all have given cause to continue sanctions. As well, trade issues–intellectual property rights and Chinese markets closed by tariffs and other restrictions–raise the specter of trade sanctions.

History of U.S. economic sanctions imposed against the People’s Republic of China for foreign policy reasons

History of U.S. economic sanctions imposed against the People’s Republic of China for foreign policy reasons since 1949:

U.S. sanctions by date:

  • MAY 7, 1971 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: TRAVEL PROHIBITION LIFTED)
  • JUNE 10, 1971 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: TRANSACTIONS RELATED TO TRADE)
  • JUNE 11, 1971 (Type of Sanction: LIFTED: TRADE EMBARGO)
  • JANUARY 31, 1980 (Type of Sanction: LIFTED: FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL)
  • FEBRUARY 1, 1980 (Type of Sanction: SUSPENDED: RESTRICTION ON TRADE RELATIONS)
  • MARCH 1980 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: ARMS TRADE BAN)
  • APRIL 2, 1980 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • APRIL 25, 1980 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: RESTRICTIONS ON EXPORTS)
  • AUG. 8, 1980 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: OPIC TRANSACTIONS ALLOWED)
  • JUNE 16, 1981 (Type of Sanction: LIFTED: BAN ON COMMERCIAL ARMS TRADE)
  • SEPTEMBER 4, 1981 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROJECTS)
  • NOVEMBER 23, 1983 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: RESTRICTIONS ON EXPORTS)
  • JUNE 12, 1984 (Type of Sanction: LIFTED: GOVERNMENT-TO-GOVERNMENT ARMS SALES PERMITTED)
  • DECEMBER 11, 1985 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON AID)
  • MARCH 7, 1988 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • MARCH 9, 1988 (Type of Sanction: LIFTED: SUSPENSION ON HIGH-TECH EXPORTS)
  • SEPTEMBER 29, 1988 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • JULY 7, 1989 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: SUSPENSION ON ARMS SALES)
  • OCTOBER 1989 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: SUSPENSION ON MILITARY EXCHANGES)
  • DECEMBER 19, 1989 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK FINANCING)
  • DECEMBER 19, 1989 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT LICENSES)
  • JANUARY 1990 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: SUSPENSION ON MDB LOANS)
  • JANUARY 3, 1990 (Type of Sanction: LIFTED: HOLD ON FUNDS FOR MDB)
  • NOVEMBER 30, 1990 (Type of Sanction: LIFTED: SUSPENSION ON HIGH-LEVEL GOVERNMENT EXCHANGES)
  • APRIL 30, 1991 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON U.S. SATELLITE EXPORTS)
  • SEPTEMBER 1, 1991 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: DECONTROL OF CERTAIN EXPORT LICENSES)
  • MARCH 23, 1992 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT OF ITEMS ON MTCR AND U.S. GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS)
  • OCTOBER 6, 1992 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITED INDIRECT AID)
  • NOVEMBER 4, 1992 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON INDIRECT AID)
  • DECEMBER 4, 1992 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: PROHIBITION ON COMPUTER EXPORTS)
  • DECEMBER 22, 1992 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: SUSPENSION ON ARMS SALES)
  • JANUARY 5, 1993 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: WITHHOLDING OF FUNDS FOR MDB)
  • APRIL 15, 1993 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • MAY 28, 1993 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: TRADE RESTRICTED)
  • DECEMBER 9, 1993 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: RELAXATION OF LICENSE REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPUTERS)
  • DECEMBER 18, 1993 (Type of Sanction: LIFTED: PROHIBITION LIFTED ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR)
  • JANUARY 1994 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: RELAXATION OF LICENSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FIBER OPTICS, TELECOMMUNICATIONS)
  • MARCH 31, 1994 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: TERMINATION OF COCOM)
  • SEPTEMBER 30, 1994 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • OCTOBER 5, 1994 (Type of Sanction: LIFTED: PROHIBITION LIFTED ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR)
  • NOVEMBER 1, 1994 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITED EXPORT OF MTCR ITEMS AND U.S. GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS)
  • APRIL 21, 1995 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • APRIL 21, 1995 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • JUNE 22, 1995 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: RESTRICTIONS ON CERTAIN CRYPTOGRAPHIC ITEMS LIFTED)
  • FEBRUARY 6, 1996 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON U.S. SATELLITE EXPORTS)
  • MARCH 25, 1996 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS REWRITTEN)
  • MAY 10, 1996 (Type of Sanction: LIFTED: EXPORT-IMPORT BANK FINANCING POSTPONED)
  • JUNE 23, 1996 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON U.S. SATELLITE EXPORTS)
  • NOVEMBER 11, 1996 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • NOVEMBER 11, 1996 (Type of Sanction: WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • JANUARY 1, 1976 (Type of Sanction: GENERALIZED SYSTEM OF PREFERENCES STATUS WITHHELD); Status: Active
  • DECEMBER 16, 1985 (Type of Sanction: “PROHIBITED EXPORTS OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS, FACILITIES OR COMPONENTS”); Status: Active
  • JUNE 20, 1989 (Type of Sanction: POSTPONEMENT OF LOANS FROM MDBS); Status: Active
  • MARCH 23, 1992 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR); Status: Active
  • AUGUST 19, 1992 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR); Status: Active
  • JUNE 16, 1993 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR); Status: Active
  • MAY 28, 1994 (Type of Sanction: IMPORTATION OF MUNITIONS ANDAMMUNITION PROHIBITED); Status: Active
  • AUGUST 23, 1994 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITED U.S. PAYMENTS TO UNFPA FROM BEING MADE AVAILABLE TO PROGRAMS IN CHINA); Status: Active
  • APRIL 29, 1996 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR); Status: Active
  • MAY 21, 1997 (Type of Sanction: PROCUREMENT CONTRACTS WITH, IMPORTATION FROM CERTAIN INDIVIDUALS AND COMPANIES PROHIBITED); Status: Active
  • OCTOBER 1, 1989 (Type of Sanction: SALE OF DEFENSE ARTICLES TO THIRD COUNTRIES RESTRICTED); Status: Expired
  • FEBRUARY 28, 1996 (Type of Sanction: EXPORT-IMPORT BANK FINANCING POSTPONED); Status: Expired
  • DECEMBER 1950 (Type of Sanction: TRADE EMBARGO; TRAVEL PROHIBITED); Status: Lifted
  • SEPTEMBER 1, 1951 (Type of Sanction: SUSPENDED MFN); Status: Lifted
  • JULY 14, 1952 (Type of Sanction: SUSPENDED MFN FOR TIBET); Status: Lifted
  • AUGUST 26, 1955 (Type of Sanction: BANNED COMMERCIAL ARMS TRADE); Status: Lifted
  • OCTOBER 22, 1968 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITED GOVERNMENTTO-GOVERNMENT ARMS SALES AND TRANSFERS); Status: Lifted
  • OCTOBER 22, 1987 (Type of Sanction: SUSPENDED HIGH-TECH EXPORTS); Status: Lifted
  • JUNE 20, 1989 (Type of Sanction: SUSPENDED HIGH-LEVEL GOVERNMENT EXCHANGES); Status: Lifted
  • NOVEMBER 21, 1989 (Type of Sanction: WITHHELD FUNDS FOR MDB); Status: Lifted
  • MAY 27, 1991 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITED EXPORT OF MISSILE-RELATED COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY AND SATELLITES); Status: Lifted
  • JULY 13, 1992 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR); Status: Lifted
  • JULY 13, 1992 (Type of Sanction: “PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR”); Status: Lifted
  • APRIL 24, 1996 (Type of Sanction: EXPORT – IMPORT BANK FINANCING POSTPONED); Status: Lifted
  • JANUARY 1, 1965 (Type of Sanction: EXPORTS RESTRICTED); Status: Modified
  • FEBRUARY 15, 1972 (Type of Sanction: EXPORTS RESTRICTED); Status: Modified
  • JUNE 5, 1989 (Type of Sanction: SUSPENDED ALL ARMS TRADE AND MILITARY EXCHANGES); Status: Modified
  • “FEBRUARY 16, 1990” (Type of Sanction: SUSPENDED CERTAIN PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES); Status: Modified
  • NOVEMBER 5, 1990 (Type of Sanction: WITHHELD FUNDS FOR MDB); Status: Modified
  • JANUARY 22, 1996 (Type of Sanction: MODIFIED: RELAXATION OF LICENSE REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPUTERS); Status: Phasing out
  • EARLY 1949 (Type of Sanction: RESTRICTED TRADE); Status: Superseded
  • JANUARY 6, 1964 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITED EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS); Status: Superseded
  • JAN. 3, 1975 (Type of Sanction: CONTINUED: RESTRICTED TRADE RELATIONS); Status: Suspended
  • AUGUST 1, 1962 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITED AID); Status: Waived
  • OCTOBER 15, 1986 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITED EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS); Status: Waived
  • NOVEMBER 21, 1989 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITED EXPORT LICENSES); Status: Waived
  • DECEMBER 19, 1989 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITED EXPORT-IMPORT BANK FINANCING); Status: Waived
  • AUGUST 24, 1993 (Type of Sanction: PROHIBITED EXPORT OF MTCR ITEMS AND U.S. GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS); Status: Waived

History of the U.S. sanctions Against China by Type:

PROHIBITED EXPORT-IMPORT BANK FINANCING

  • Date: DECEMBER 19, 1989 (PROHIBITED EXPORT-IMPORT BANK FINANCING; Status: Waived)
  • Date: JANUARY 6, 1964 (PROHIBITED EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS; Status: Superseded)
  • Date: OCTOBER 15, 1986 (PROHIBITED EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS; Status: Waived)

PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR

  • Date: MARCH 23, 1992 (PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR; Status: Active)
  • Date: JULY 13, 1992 (PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: AUGUST 19, 1992 (PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR; Status: Active)
  • Date: JUNE 16, 1993 (PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR; Status: Active)
  • Date: APRIL 29, 1996 (PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR; Status: Active)
  • Date: JULY 13, 1992 (“PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR; Status: Lifted)

WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK FINANCING

  • Date: DECEMBER 19, 1989 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK FINANCING)
  • Date: SEPTEMBER 30, 1994 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • Date: APRIL 2, 1980 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • Date: MARCH 7, 1988 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • Date: SEPTEMBER 29, 1988 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • Date: APRIL 15, 1993 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • Date: APRIL 21, 1995 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • Date: NOVEMBER 11, 1996 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROGRAMS)
  • Date: SEPTEMBER 4, 1981 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT-IMPORT BANK PROJECTS)
  • Date: APRIL 30, 1991 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON U.S. SATELLITE EXPORTS)
  • Date: FEBRUARY 6, 1996 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON U.S. SATELLITE EXPORTS)
  • Date: JUNE 23, 1996 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON U.S. SATELLITE EXPORTS)

Misceleanus

  • Date: AUGUST 26, 1955 (BANNED COMMERCIAL ARMS TRADE; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: JAN. 3, 1975 (CONTINUED: RESTRICTED TRADE RELATIONS; Status: Suspended)
  • Date: APRIL 24, 1996 (EXPORT – IMPORT BANK FINANCING POSTPONED; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: FEBRUARY 28, 1996 (EXPORT-IMPORT BANK FINANCING POSTPONED; Status: Expired)
  • Date: JANUARY 1, 1965 (EXPORTS RESTRICTED; Status: Modified)
  • Date: FEBRUARY 15, 1972 (EXPORTS RESTRICTED; Status: Modified)
  • Date: JANUARY 1, 1976 (GENERALIZED SYSTEM OF PREFERENCES STATUS WITHHELD; Status: Active)
  • Date: MAY 28, 1994 (IMPORTATION OF MUNITIONS ANDAMMUNITION PROHIBITED; Status: Active)
  • Date: JUNE 16, 1981 (LIFTED: BAN ON COMMERCIAL ARMS TRADE)
  • Date: MAY 10, 1996 (LIFTED: EXPORT-IMPORT BANK FINANCING POSTPONED)
  • Date: JANUARY 31, 1980 (LIFTED: FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL)
  • Date: JUNE 12, 1984 (LIFTED: GOVERNMENT-TO-GOVERNMENT ARMS SALES PERMITTED)
  • Date: JANUARY 3, 1990 (LIFTED: HOLD ON FUNDS FOR MDB)
  • Date: DECEMBER 18, 1993 (LIFTED: PROHIBITION LIFTED ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR)
  • Date: OCTOBER 5, 1994 (LIFTED: PROHIBITION LIFTED ON CERTAIN IMPORTS PRODUCED BY PRISON LABOR)
  • Date: NOVEMBER 30, 1990 (LIFTED: SUSPENSION ON HIGH-LEVEL GOVERNMENT EXCHANGES)
  • Date: MARCH 9, 1988 (LIFTED: SUSPENSION ON HIGH-TECH EXPORTS)
  • Date: JUNE 11, 1971 (LIFTED: TRADE EMBARGO)
  • Date: MARCH 1980 (MODIFIED: ARMS TRADE BAN)
  • Date: SEPTEMBER 1, 1991 (MODIFIED: DECONTROL OF CERTAIN EXPORT LICENSES)
  • Date: MARCH 25, 1996 (MODIFIED: EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS REWRITTEN)
  • Date: AUG. 8, 1980 (MODIFIED: OPIC TRANSACTIONS ALLOWED)
  • Date: DECEMBER 4, 1992 (MODIFIED: PROHIBITION ON COMPUTER EXPORTS)
  • Date: DECEMBER 9, 1993 (MODIFIED: RELAXATION OF LICENSE REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPUTERS)
  • Date: JANUARY 22, 1996 (MODIFIED: RELAXATION OF LICENSE REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPUTERS; Status: Phasing out)
  • Date: JANUARY 1994 (MODIFIED: RELAXATION OF LICENSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FIBER OPTICS, TELECOMMUNICATIONS
  • Date: JUNE 22, 1995 (MODIFIED: RESTRICTIONS ON CERTAIN CRYPTOGRAPHIC ITEMS LIFTED)
  • Date: APRIL 25, 1980 (MODIFIED: RESTRICTIONS ON EXPORTS)
  • Date: NOVEMBER 23, 1983 (MODIFIED: RESTRICTIONS ON EXPORTS)
  • Date: JULY 7, 1989 (MODIFIED: SUSPENSION ON ARMS SALES)
  • Date: DECEMBER 22, 1992 (MODIFIED: SUSPENSION ON ARMS SALES)
  • Date: JANUARY 1990 (MODIFIED: SUSPENSION ON MDB LOANS)
  • Date: OCTOBER 1989 (MODIFIED: SUSPENSION ON MILITARY EXCHANGES)
  • Date: MARCH 31, 1994 (MODIFIED: TERMINATION OF COCOM)
  • Date: JUNE 10, 1971 (MODIFIED: TRANSACTIONS RELATED TO TRADE)
  • Date: MAY 7, 1971 (MODIFIED: TRAVEL PROHIBITION LIFTED)
  • Date: JANUARY 5, 1993 (MODIFIED: WITHHOLDING OF FUNDS FOR MDB)
  • Date: JUNE 20, 1989 (POSTPONEMENT OF LOANS FROM MDBS; Status: Active)
  • Date: MAY 21, 1997 (PROCUREMENT CONTRACTS WITH, IMPORTATION FROM CERTAIN INDIVIDUALS AND COMPANIES PROHIBITED; Status: Active)
  • Date: AUGUST 1, 1962 (PROHIBITED AID; Status: Waived)
  • Date: NOVEMBER 21, 1989 (PROHIBITED EXPORT LICENSES; Status: Waived)
  • Date: MAY 27, 1991 (PROHIBITED EXPORT OF MISSILE-RELATED COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY AND SATELLITES; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: AUGUST 24, 1993 (PROHIBITED EXPORT OF MTCR ITEMS AND U.S. GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS; Status: Waived)
  • Date: DECEMBER 16, 1985 (“PROHIBITED EXPORTS OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS, FACILITIES OR COMPONENTS”; Status: Active)
  • Date: OCTOBER 22, 1968 (PROHIBITED GOVERNMENTTO-GOVERNMENT ARMS SALES AND TRANSFERS; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: AUGUST 23, 1994 (PROHIBITED U.S. PAYMENTS TO UNFPA FROM BEING MADE AVAILABLE TO PROGRAMS IN CHINA; Status: Active)
  • Date: EARLY 1949 (RESTRICTED TRADE; Status: Superseded)
  • Date: OCTOBER 1, 1989 (SALE OF DEFENSE ARTICLES TO THIRD COUNTRIES RESTRICTED; Status: Expired)
  • Date: JUNE 5, 1989 (SUSPENDED ALL ARMS TRADE AND MILITARY EXCHANGES; Status: Modified)
  • Date: “FEBRUARY 16, 1990 (SUSPENDED CERTAIN PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES; Status: Modified)
  • Date: JUNE 20, 1989 (SUSPENDED HIGH-LEVEL GOVERNMENT EXCHANGES; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: OCTOBER 22, 1987 (SUSPENDED HIGH-TECH EXPORTS; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: SEPTEMBER 1, 1951 (SUSPENDED MFN; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: JULY 14, 1952 (SUSPENDED MFN FOR TIBET; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: FEBRUARY 1, 1980 (SUSPENDED: RESTRICTION ON TRADE RELATIONS)
  • Date: DECEMBER 1950 (TRADE EMBARGO; TRAVEL PROHIBITED; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: NOVEMBER 1, 1994 (WAIVED: PROHIBITED EXPORT OF MTCR ITEMS AND U.S. GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS)
  • Date: OCTOBER 6, 1992 (WAIVED: PROHIBITED INDIRECT AID)
  • Date: DECEMBER 11, 1985 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON AID)
  • Date: DECEMBER 19, 1989 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT LICENSES)
  • Date: MARCH 23, 1992 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON EXPORT OF ITEMS ON MTCR AND U.S. GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS)
  • Date: NOVEMBER 4, 1992 (WAIVED: PROHIBITION ON INDIRECT AID)
  • Date: MAY 28, 1993 (WAIVED: TRADE RESTRICTED)
  • Date: NOVEMBER 21, 1989 (WITHHELD FUNDS FOR MDB; Status: Lifted)
  • Date: NOVEMBER 5, 1990 (WITHHELD FUNDS FOR MDB; Status: Modified)

Sanctions on China: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Sanctions on China. This part provides references, in relation to Sanctions on China, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Sanctions on China by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Sanctions on China and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Sanctions on China or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Sanctions on China and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Sanctions on China. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Sanctions on China should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Sanctions on China when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

*This resource guide is updated frequently. However, if you notice something is wrong or not working, or any resources that should be added, please notify us in any of the "Leave a Comment" area.

Leave a Comment