Rachel Carson

Rachel Carson in the United States

Carson, Rachel (1907-1964) in Environmental Law

Aquatic biologist and author of four books, including Silent Spring, the book credited with starting the modem environmental movement. In Silent Spring, Carson argues that pesticide use, notably DDT applications, had far-reaching effects on the food chain. By the time Carson wrote her warnings, some birds were in danger of extinction due to the thinning of their eggshells caused by ingesting DDT. Because of the wide distribution of Silent Spring, international awareness of the dangers of pesticide persistence in the environment increased until, in 1972, DDT was banned in the United States and in many other countries. The first major revision of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act was enacted that year as well. Carson’s work is thought to have brought about these changes.

Based on “Environment and the Law. A Dictionary”.

Rachel Carson: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Rachel Carson. This part provides references, in relation to Rachel Carson, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Rachel Carson by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Rachel Carson and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Rachel Carson or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Rachel Carson and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Rachel Carson. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Rachel Carson should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Rachel Carson when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

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