Market in United States

Market Definition

(Lat. mens, merchandise; anciently, mercat). A public place and appointed time for buying and selling. A public place appointed by public authority, where all sorts of things necessary for the subsistence or for the convenience of life are sold. 14 N. Y. 356. All fairs are markets, but not vice versa. Bracton, lib. 2, c. 24; Co. Litt. 22; 2 Inst. 401; 4 Inst. 272. Markets are generally regulated by local laws. The franchise by which a town holds a market, which can only be by royal grant or immemorial usage. 21 Barb. (N. Y.) 296, 2 Bl. Comm. 37. By the term “market” is also understood the demand there is for any particular article; as, the cotton market in Europe is dull. See 15 Viner, Abr. 42; Comyn, Dig. This definition of Market is based on The Cyclopedic Law Dictionary.

Market Capitalization

A company’s market capitalization is the number of shares available on the market multiplied by the price of the stock at any given time. You can find a public company’s market capitalization by looking up the company in Yahoo Finance or Hoover’s.

For historical market capitalization, I usually use print products. For larger companies, the market capitalization is in Standard & Poor’s Stock Market Encyclopedia. For other companies, the S&P Daily Stock Price Record lists the number of shares outstanding at the top of a column listing the stock price for each day of the quarter. If the shares outstanding isn’t in the Daily Stock Price Record, check the relevant Mergent manual entry for the following year.

For smaller companies, the “tear sheets” usually list the market capitalization for small companies, and the Bloomberg reports (available from Bloomberg or Lexis) should have it too.

Market Share

A company’s market share is the total sales of a company’s product divided by the total sales of that type product for all companies. Market share data is especially important when structuring mergers, because the merging companies have to show that the merger will not create a monopoly, in violation of the anti-trust laws. There is more available information about market share in the Encyclopedia here.

Market Research

The entry about market research in this legal Encyclopedia includes the sources we have found useful for finding information about the market for a particular industry or product.

Market in Insurance Law and Legal Risk

Market, in the areas of Insurance Law and Legal Risk, may be defined in the following terms:(noun) an insurance carrier or program; (transitive verb) to convey an application to carriers (as a broker).

Practical applicationof Market in Insurance Law and Legal Risk

When your broker says she’ll talk to various markets about your application, she means she’ll get quotes from insurance carriers or programs. When she says she’s ready to market your application, she actually means the same thing. (And when a carrier is marketing, it is telling brokers about the coverage it sells.)

See Also
Stock Prices

Soft Market in the context of Real Estate


See Also

  • Buyer’s Market

Market in the International Business Landscape

Definition of Market in the context of U.S. international business and public trade policy: A system of voluntary exchange that generates prices to decide how to allocate scarce resources.

Market Definition and Scope

Leading Case Law

Among the main judicial decisions on this topic:

United States v. E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.

Information about this important court opinion is available in this American legal Encyclopedia.


See Also

  • Business Law
  • Antitrust Laws

Market: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Market. This part provides references, in relation to Market, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Market by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Market and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Market or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Market and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Market. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Market should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Market when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

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