Judiciary

Judiciary in the United States

The governmental branch that possesses judicial authority. The term Judiciary (Judicial Function) can refer either to the court system generally or to the judges in aggregate who sit on the various courts. It is the function of the Judiciary to interpret or construe the law as distinct from creating or executing it. The related term, judicial, refers to that which belongs to the position of a judge, such as the authority to render judgments in formal processes. The Judiciary in the United States is divided between the national and state levels of government. The power of particular courts, both federal and state, is defined by each court’s jurisdiction. Usually, courts possess either original jurisdiction or appellate jurisdiction, but in some cases both. The former allows a court to hear a case first, while the latter allows a court to review the proceedings of a lower court. The Judiciary is created either by specific provision of federal or state constitutions or by statutes enacted pursuant to constitutional mandate. The Supreme Court is created by terms of Article III of the U.S. Constitution. Article III also conveys power to Congress to establish inferior federal courts. The first Congress established the district and circuit courts in the Judiciary Act of 1789 . A number of Judiciary acts (see bellow) have followed, including the Act of 1891 (also known as the Evarts Act), which created the U.S. Court of Appeals. (1)

Analysis and Relevance

The Judicary is one of the three basic functional elements of the American system of government at both the national and state levels. An independent Judiciary (U.S.) that possesses power approaching or equivalent to the executive and legislative branches is an essential component for implementing both the separation of power and checks and balances concepts. It is the function of the Judiciary to interpret the law in order to preserve the functional boundaries among the branches and levels of government. Through the power of judicial review, the courts can check the improper or excessive exercise of power by another branch. The Judiciary also acts to resolve disputes between private and public parties as well as to preside over the procedures devoted to fact-finding and interpretation of law. (2)

Judiciary Definition

That which is done while administering justice; the judges taken collectively; as, the liberties of the people are secured by a wise and independent judiciary. (3)

Judiciary Acts

Judiciary Act of 1875
Judiciary Act of 1925
Judiciary Acts of 1802
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 1991
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1986
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1979
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1978
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1974
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1973
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 1992
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 1993
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 1997
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 1998
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 2002
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 2003
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 2004
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 2008
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 2010
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1972
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1969
Judiciary Appropriations Act, 2009
Judiciary Appropriation Act 1949
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1945
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1946
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1951
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1953
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1956
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1957
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1968
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1967
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1963
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1962
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1958
Judiciary Appropriation Act, 1952

Judiciary and Judicial Procedure in the U.S. Code

28 U.S.C. § 1 : US Code – Section 1: Number of justices; quorum

This description of the Judiciary and Judicial Procedure tracks the language of the U.S. Code, except that, sometimes, we use plain English and that we may refer to the “Act” (meaning Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) rather than to the “subchapter” or the “title” of the United States Code.

U.S. Code Citation

28 U.S.C. § 1

U.S. Code Section and Head

  • United States Code – Section 1
  • Head of the Section: Number of justices; quorum

Text of the Section

The Supreme Court of the United States shall consist of a Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, any six of whom shall constitute a quorum.

Online Resources about Judiciary

These are a list of historical and currrent sites about the judiciary:

Historical Background

  • Legal and Judicial History
  • Origins of the Elements of Federal Court Governance
  • The History and Evolution of Judicial Independence
  • The History of the Federal Judiciary
  • The Origins of the National Judiciary
  • FDR’s Fireside Chat on Reorganization of the Judiciary March 9, 1937
  • Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
  • Clarence Gideon’s Road to the Supreme Court
  • “Hanging” Judge Parker & Executions at Fort Smith
  • Judge Roy Bean
  • The Political Graveyard: The Federal Judiciary
  • The Law

  • United States Code.
  • Code of Federal Regulations
  • Anderson’s Ohio Revised Code
  • Anderson’s Ohio Administrative Code
  • U.S. Code Title 18: Crimes & Criminal Procedure
  • U.S. Jurisdiction Law
  • Ohio Revised Code Title 19: Courts-Municipal, Mayor’s, County
  • Ohio Revised Code Title 21: Courts-Probate, Juvenile
  • Ohio Revised Code Title 23: Courts-Common Pleas
  • Ohio Revised Code Title 25: Courts-Appellate
  • Ohio Revised Code Title 27: Courts-General Provisions & Special Remedies
  • Case Law

    Federal Case Law

  • Federal Civil Cases
  • PACER: Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts Database
  • Legal Engine: Federal Case Law
  • Law Library of Congress: Case Law
  • Federal Court Opinions
  • State Case Law

  • State Case Law
  • State Civil Cases
  • State Civil Trials
  • Ohio Supreme Court Decisions
  • General Information

  • Case Law and Judicial Information
  • Federal Courts & Case Law
  • State Courts & Case Law
  • Amicus Curiae Briefs in U.S. Cases
  • Documents, Publications & Databases

    Rules of Court

  • State & Federal Rules of Court
  • LLRX: Court Rules, Forms & Dockets
  • Federal & State Rules of Court
  • Federal Rules

  • U.S. Court Rules
  • Federal Rules of Civil Procedure
  • Federal Rules of Evidence
  • U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio Local Rules
  • State Rules

  • State Rules of Court
  • Ohio Rules of Court
  • Franklin County Ohio Local Rules
  • Sentencing Guidelines

  • United States Sentencing Commission
  • Federal Sentencing Guidelines, Manuals & Amendments
  • United States Sentencing Commission – Federal
  • Criminal Law Links-Sentences
  • Other Documents & Publications

  • Manual for Complex Litigation
  • Federal Judicial Center Publications
  • The Federal Judiciary Library
  • Courtroom Technology Manual
  • The Courts

    Federal Courts

  • The Federal Judiciary

  • Map & Links of the Circuit Courts
  • Federal Courts
  • U.S. Federal Courts Finder
  • United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit
  • United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit
  • United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit
  • United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit
  • United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit
  • United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit
  • United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit
  • United State Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit
  • United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit
  • United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit
  • United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit
  • General Information: Federal Courts

  • Understanding the Federal Courts
  • The Federal Judiciary Homepage: Frequently Asked Questions
  • Judicial Statistics
  • The Federal Judiciary
  • State Courts

  • Listing of State Courts
  • National Center for State Courts
  • Ohio Courts

  • Supreme Court of Ohio
  • Franklin County Court of Common Pleas
  • Franklin County Juvenile Domestic-Common Pleas Court
  • Akron Municipal Courts
  • Athens County Common Pleas Court
  • Butler County Probate Court
  • Cuyahoga County Common Pleas Court
  • Dayton Municipal Courts
  • Delaware County Common Pleas Court
  • Hamilton County Municipal Courts
  • Knox County Common Pleas Court
  • Montgomery County Common Pleas Court
  • Judges

  • Code of Conduct for United States Judges
  • American Judicature Society
  • The Federal Judges Biographical Database
  • The Use of
  • Visiting Judges in Federal District Courts
  • A Guide to the Preservation of Federal Judges Papers
  • Judicial Vacancies
  • National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
  • Juries

    General Information

  • Federal Grand Jury information
  • FIJA: Fully Informed Jury
  • The Jury Rights Project
  • Recognition of the Duty to go Beyond the Pattern Instructions
  • Jury Instructions

  • Manual of Model Jury Instructions
  • Model Civil Jury Instructions
  • Model Criminal Jury Instructions
  • Jury Verdicts

  • Jury Verdict Research
  • Jury Verdicts & Settlements
  • Punitive Damages in Financial Injury Jury Verdicts
  • National Association of State Jury Verdict Publishers
  • Court Reporters

  • National Court Reporters Association
  • LawServe: Search for a Court Reporter
  • Evidence & Discovery

  • The Cyberlaw Encyclopedia v. 2: Electronic Evidence
  • Evidence Spoliation – Sanctions: Case Summaries
  • Electronic Evidence
  • E-Discovery Adds Complexity to Protecting Clients & Disadvantaging Opponents
  • Discovery in Cyberspace
  • Navigating the Perils of Discovery in the E-Information Age
  • Expert Witnesses

  • Experts Directory
  • National Registy of Experts
  • Expert Witnesses and Consultants
  • Medical Experts & Specialists Directory
  • Expert 4 Law
  • Expert Witness Network
  • Witness Stand – Who is an Expert
  • General Information

  • Court and Court Related Web Sites
  • Court Guide
  • ILRG’s United States Federal & State Courts
  • U.S. High Courts – State & Federal
  • LII’s Eye on the Courts
  • Courts and Mediation: Small Claims and Trial Tactics
  • DepoConnect
  • Discovery: Evidence Destruction
  • The Litigation Site
  • Enforcing Legal Judgments
  • Code of Conduct for Judicial Employees
  • What is the Manual for Complex Litigation?
  • Organiztions

  • NITA–National Institute for Trial Advocacy
  • National Center for State Courts
  • Journals & Newsletters

  • The Third Branch
  • World Court Digest
  • Capital Defense Weekly
  • Tools

  • The Deposition Guide
  • US Attorneys’ Manual
  • Judiciary in Foreign Legal Encyclopedias

    Link Description
    Judiciary Judiciary in the World Legal Encyclopedia.
    Judiciary Judiciary in the European Legal Encyclopedia.
    Judiciary Judiciary in the Asian Legal Encyclopedia.
    Judiciary Judiciary in the UK Legal Encyclopedia.
    Judiciary Judiciary in the Australian Legal Encyclopedia.

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    Definition in the American Encyclopedia of Law for Judiciary

    Resource Description
    Judiciary in the International Dictionary International Definition of Judiciary
    Judiciary in the U.S. Dictionary American Definition of Judiciary
    https://lawi.us/judiciary The URI of Judiciary (more about URIs)

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    Judiciary

    Finding the law: Judiciary in the U.S. Code

    A collection of general and permanent laws relating to judiciary, passed by the United States Congress, are organized by subject matter arrangements in the United States Code (U.S.C.; this label examines judiciary topics), to make them easy to use (usually, organized by legal areas into Titles, Chapters and Sections). The platform provides introductory material to the U.S. Code, and cross references to case law. View the U.S. Code’s table of contents here.

    Resources

    Further Reading

    • Cameras in our federal courts—the time has come (editorial), No, Author, 93: 136, 172 (4, AJS Judicature)
    • Cameras, the courts, and the public (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 86: 4 (July-Aug. ’02, AJS Judicature)
    • Campaign contributors and the Pennsylvania Supreme Court (focus), Reddick, Malia and Debuse, James R., 93: 164-165 (4, AJS Judicature)
    • Campaign contributors and the Pennsylvania Supreme Court: Redux, Reddick, Malia and Debuse, James R., 93: 206 (4, AJS Judicature)
    • Can the State Court Experience Guide Efforts to Improve the Federal System? (query), Heflin, Howell, 63: 258-261, 302 (Dec.-Jan. ’80, AJS Judicature)
    • Candidates State Positions on Federal Judicial Selection, Author, No, 72: 77 (Aug.-Sep. ’88, AJS Judicature)
    • Carter’s Remarkable Achievement (letter), Tydings, Joseph, 63: 256 (Dec.-Jan. ’80, AJS Judicature)
    • The case for saving SJI (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 85: 168 (Jan.-Feb. ’02, AJS Judicature)
    • A celebrated warning (letter), Abraham, Henry J., 85: 171 (Jan.-Feb. ’02, AJS Judicature)
    • The Center for Judicial Conduct Organizations, Author, No, 61: 205-208 (Nov. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • The challenges of judicial elections research (editorial), Author, No, 94: 204, 207 (Mar.-Apr. ’11, AJS Judicature)
    • The Changing Face of America – How Will Demographic Trends Affect the Courts, Author, No, 72: 125-132 (Aug.-Sep. ’88, AJS Judicature)
    • Chief Judge Judith S. Kaye receives Opperman Award for Judicial Excellence (brief), Ryan, Katherine R., 92: 173 (4, AJS Judicature)
    • Chief Justice Pascal F. Calogero, Jr. receives Opperman Award for Judicial Excellence (brief), Eckley, Timothy S., 91: 99-100 (Sep-Oct ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • China Diary, Williams, George H., 68: 61-69 (Aug.-Sep. ’84, AJS Judicature)
    • Citizen Leaders Seek Consensus at Denver Conference on Courts (news), Anderson, Nancy B., 61: 48-49 (Jun.-Jul. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • Citizens See Education, Communication As Keys to Better Justice (news), Author, No, 60: 152-153 (Oct. ’76, AJS Judicature)
    • Clinton’s legacy or Bork’s? (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 84: 224 (Mar.-Apr. ’01, AJS Judicature)
    • Close encounters of the first kind, Sullivan, Thomas P., 87: 166-167, 191 (Jan.-Feb. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • A closer look at mandatory arbitration for consumers (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 91: 220-221,260 (Mar-Apr ’08, AJS Judicature)
    • Comity in federal judicial selection (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 87: 4 (July-Aug. ’03, AJS Judicature)
    • A common-sense approach to justice, Reno, Janet, 77: 66-67, 113-114 (Sep.-Oct. ’93, AJS Judicature)
    • Conference Considers Changes in Court Handling of Child Abuse Cases (focus), Weisberg, Lynn, 71: 169-170 (Oct.-Nov. ’87, AJS Judicature)
    • Confidential Settlements and Sealed Court Records: Necessary Safeguards or Unwarranted Secrecy? (panel discussion), Discussion, Panel, 78: 304-311 (May-Jun. ’95, AJS Judicature)
    • Congress Approves Legislation Creating 152 New Judgships (news), Author, No, 62: 310 (Dec.-Jan. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • Congress Enacts A Major Revision of the Federal Bankruptcy System (news), Author, No, 62: 310 (Dec.-Jan. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • A conversation about judicial independence and impartiality, Author, No, 89: 339-343 (6, AJS Judicature)
    • A cooperative model for preventing wrongful convictions, Stookey, John A., 87: 159-162 (Jan.-Feb. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • The costs of juries (editorial), No, Author, 93: 92, 129 (3, AJS Judicature)
    • Court-community collaboration: new partnerships for court improvement, Transcript, AJS, 80: 200-205 (Mar.-Apr. ’97, AJS Judicature)
    • Courts and the “War on Drugs” (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 73: 236, 288 (Feb.-Mar. ’90, AJS Judicature)
    • Courts and the self-represented (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 82: 4 (July-Aug. ’98, AJS Judicature)
    • Courts and the self-represented – the road ahead (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 84: 300 (May-June ’01, AJS Judicature)
    • Courts under attack (editorial), Author, No, 94: 256, 259 (may-june ’11, AJS Judicature)
    • The courts, the legislature, and the executive: separate and equal? Historical overview on the separation of powers, Author, No, 87: 208-218 (Mar.-Apr. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • The courts, the legislature, and the executive: separate and equal? Issues at the federal level, Author, No, 87: 220-229, 243, 259 (Mar.-Apr. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • The courts, the legislature, and the executive: separate and equal? Issues at the state level, Author, No, 87: 230-240 (Mar.-Apr. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • Creating a national jury center, Boatright, Robert G., 85: 39-42 (July-Aug. ’01, AJS Judicature)
    • Creating court-community partnerships (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 80: 204 (Mar.-Apr. ’97, AJS Judicature)
    • The crisis in the immigration courts (editorial), Author, No, 95: 56, 58 (sept-oct ’11, AJS Judicature)
    • The Dangers of Ex Parte Communications (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 74: 288-289 (Apr.-May ’91, AJS Judicature)
    • Dedication of the Opperman Center at Drake University, Author, No, 87: 101-107 (Nov.-Dec. ’03, AJS Judicature)
    • Delay in Filling Federal Judicial Vacancies (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 74: 64 (Aug.-Sep. ’90, AJS Judicature)
    • The devil in the details (editorial), Author, No, 91: 52, 54 (Sep-Oct ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • Director Leroy Jeffers Has Died (news), Author, No, 63: 90 (Aug. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • A Distortion of Justice (letter), Scott, George M., 62: 316-317 (Feb. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • Does Television Make A Fair Trial Impossible? – A Debate (news), Author, No, 64: 145-146 (Sep. ’80, AJS Judicature)
    • Drake University: The new home of the American Judicature Society in Des Moines, Iowa, Author, No, 86: 278-280 (May-June ’03, AJS Judicature)
    • An Earthquake in South Dakota? (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 89: 192, 237 (Jan.-Feb. ’06, AJS Judicature)
    • Eavesdropping on the adversary system (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 85: 108 (Nov.-Dec. ’01, AJS Judicature)
    • Economic independence for federal judges (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 84: 56 (Sept.-Oct. ’00, AJS Judicature)
    • Eliminating unnecessary delays in filling federal judicial vacancies (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 83: 100 (Nov.-Dec. ’99, AJS Judicature)
    • The Empirical Turn In Legal Education (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 89: 312, 351 (6, AJS Judicature)
    • Ending Patronage In The Judiciary (editorial), Rush, Fletcher G., 62: 264 (Dec.-Jan. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • Enhancing Federal Judicial Selection (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 73: 64, 188 (Aug.-Sep. ’89, AJS Judicature)
    • Enhancing the jury system (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 79: 212 (Mar.-Apr. ’96, AJS Judicature)
    • Ensuring access to justice for self-represented litigants (editorial), Author, No, 94: 204, 207 (Mar-Apr ’11, AJS Judicature)
    • Ensuring adequate funding for the courts (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 88: 152, 187-188 (Jan-Feb ’05, AJS Judicature)
    • Ensuring adequate funding for the justice system (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 80: 108 (Nov.-Dec. ’96, AJS Judicature)
    • The erosion of the Great Writ (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 89: 56, 90 (Sept.-Oct. ’05, AJS Judicature)
    • Evaluating Proposals for Civil Justice Reform (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 76: 108, 162 (Oct.-Nov. ’92, AJS Judicature)
    • Evaluating the performance of judges standing for retention (panel discussion), Discussion, Panel, 79: 190-197 (Jan.-Feb. ’96, AJS Judicature)
    • Experimenting with the jury, Daffron, Sandra Ratcliff, 81: 97 (Nov.-Dec. ’97, AJS Judicature)
    • Exploring the issues in private judging (panel discussion), Discussion, Panel, 77: 203-210 (Jan.-Feb. ’94, AJS Judicature)
    • Eyewitness identification reform (editorial), Author, No, 95: 105-106 (Nov.-Dec. ’11, AJS Judicature)
    • The Federal Courts Since 1787: Stability and Change in 200 Years (panel discussion), Discussion, Panel, 71: 116-122 (Aug.-Sep. ’87, AJS Judicature)
    • Five Receive Harley Awards (news), Author, No, 60: 102 (Aug.-Sep. ’76, AJS Judicature)
    • Fixing White (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 90: 192,194 (Mar-Apr ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • A fresh look at judicial impairment (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 90: 4,44 (July-Aug ’06, AJS Judicature)
    • A fresh start for the justice system (editorial), No, Author, 92: 100, 135 (3, AJS Judicature)
    • From chambers to community, Zemans, Frances Kahn, 80: 62-63 (Sept.-Oct. ’96, AJS Judicature)
    • From Pound to Harley: The Founding of AJS, Belknap, Michal R., 72: 78-90 (Aug.-Sep. ’88, AJS Judicature)
    • The Future of Our Federal Courts (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 74: 4 (Jun.-Jul. ’90, AJS Judicature)
    • Gender and racial fairness in the courts (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 77: 64, 65 (Sep.-Oct. ’93, AJS Judicature)
    • Glenn R. Winters 1909-1998, Author, No, 81: 230 (May-June ’98, AJS Judicature)
    • Governor Milliken Receives the Herbert Harley Award (news), Author, No, 61: 242 (Nov. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • Guidelines for Cases Involving Judicial Disability, Author, No, 69: 110-113 (Aug.-Sep. ’85, AJS Judicature)
    • Gunderson and Clapp Win Herbert Harley Awards (news), Author, No, 61: 93 (Aug. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • A Half Century in Retrospect, Winters, Glenn R., 72: 92-97 (Aug.-Sep. ’88, AJS Judicature)
    • Harley Awards to Fulghum (news), Author, No, 63: 90 (Aug. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • Hawaii chapter recommends unpublished opinions be citable (focus), Stanik, Kristine, 86: 162 (Nov.-Dec. ’02, AJS Judicature)
    • Helping judges explain the courts (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 80: 56 (Sept.-Oct. ’96, AJS Judicature)
    • How should we respond to the 2010 judicial elections? (editorial), Author, No, 94: 102, 105 (Nov-Dec ’10, AJS Judicature)
    • Impeaching Federal Judges: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?, Author, No, 72: 359-365 (Apr.-May ’89, AJS Judicature)
    • An impending crisis in state court funding (editorial), No, Author, 92: 52, 83 (2, AJS Judicature)
    • The importance of representative juries (viewpoint), Houser, Mark, 87: 99, 148 (Nov.-Dec. ’03, AJS Judicature)
    • In Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of Merit Selection, Krivosha, Norman, 74: 128-132 (Oct.-Nov. ’90, AJS Judicature)
    • In Memoriam: Allan D. Sobel and Richard F. Perrault, Author, No, 94: 100-101, 106 (Nov-Dec ’10, AJS Judicature)
    • In Memoriam: Diedre O’Meara Smith (brief), Eckley, Timothy S., 91: 206 (Jan-Feb ’08, AJS Judicature)
    • In Memoriam: Ned Carpenter (brief), Eckley, Timothy S., 92: 174 (4, AJS Judicature)
    • In Memoriam: William W. Baker and Mary H. Wechler, Author, No, 94: 154-155 (Jan-Feb ’11, AJS Judicature)
    • An Independent NIJ (letter), Bayh, Birch, 62: 317 (Feb. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • Initial report of the Eyewitness Indentification Field Studies (brief), Mitchell, Danielle, 95: 48 (July-Aug ’11, AJS Judicature)
    • Interaction and Decisionmaking on Collegial Courts: A Panel Discussion (panel discussion), Discussion, Panel, 71: 339-344 (Apr.-May ’88, AJS Judicature)
    • Interviewing judicial applicants: a critical nominating commission function (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 87: 286, 305 (May-June ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • Introduction: Selecting federal court of appeals and district court judges (introduction), Author, No, 86: 9 (July-Aug. ’02, AJS Judicature)
    • Introduction: Wrongful convictions of the innocent (introduction), Radelet, Michael L., 86: 67-68 (July-Aug. ’02, AJS Judicature)
    • It is time to end the war on drugs (editorial), no, author, 93: 48, 83 (1, 2, AJS Judicature)
    • John L. Hill, Jr. remembered (brief), Richert, David, 91: 41 (Jul-Aug ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • Judge Carl B. Rubin Receives Herbert Harley Award, Author, No, 75: 229 (Dec.-Jan. ’92, AJS Judicature)
    • Judge Carolyn Dineen King honored with Devitt Award (brief), Eckley, Timothy S., 91: 98-99 (Sep-Oct ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • Judges, ideology, and accountability (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 85: 212-213 (Mar.-Apr. ’02, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicature receives award (brief), Richert, David, 90: 182 (Jan-Feb ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial accountability (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 89: 4, 6 (July-Aug. ’05, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Discipline Reps Meet to Learn, Compare Notes (news), Richman, Dan, 60: 48-49 (Jun.-Jul. ’76, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial disqualification after Caperton (editorial), no, author, 93: 4, 35 (1, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Improvement: What’s Going On In The States? (focus), Krasno, Miriam R., 67: 149-151 (Sep. ’83, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Improvements Act (letter), Cohn, Avern, 74: 177 (Dec.-Jan. ’91, AJS Judicature)
    • The judicial independence and accountability task force (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 88: 108, 121 (Nov.-Dec. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial independence at the crossroads (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 85: 260 (May-June ’02, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Independence lesson added to AJS?s High School Curriculum (brief), Reddick, Malia, 93: 259 (6, AJS Judicature)
    • The judicial independence task force, Daffron, Sandra Ratcliff, 81: 49 (Sept.-Oct. ’97, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Independence: An Introduction (introduction), Author, No, 80: 155 (Jan.-Feb. ’97, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Nominating Commissions – The Need for Demographic Diversity (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 74: 236 (Feb.-Mar. ’91, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial Selection – Keeping the Process Open (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 75: 236, 282 (Feb.-Mar. ’92, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicial settlement ethics (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 81: 48 (Sept.-Oct. ’97, AJS Judicature)
    • Judicious use of juror anonymity (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 86: 180 (Jan.-Feb. ’03, AJS Judicature)
    • Jury improvement, not reform (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 83: 284 (May-June ’00, AJS Judicature)
    • The jury revisited, Author, No, 88: 284-300 (May-June ’05, AJS Judicature)
    • Justice beyond our borders (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 81: 228 (May-June ’98, AJS Judicature)
    • Justice for ALJs (letter), Jacobson, Barry, 73: 237 (Feb.-Mar. ’90, AJS Judicature)
    • Larry Hammond receives the 2008 Justice Award (brief), Eckley, Timothy S., 91: 312-313 (May-Jun ’08, AJS Judicature)
    • Lawyer, Citizen Leader Accept Harley Awards (news), Author, No, 60: 50 (Jun.-Jul. ’76, AJS Judicature)
    • Leaders of Bench and Bar Receive Harley Awards (news), Author, No, 60: 154 (Oct. ’76, AJS Judicature)
    • Leave no innocent behind (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 87: 156, 188 (Jan.-Feb. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • The legacy of Republican Party of Minnesota v. White: Judicial independence, judicial selection, and the First Amendment in the post-White era, Author, No, 91: 135-143 (Nov-Dec ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • Let Ideas Flourish: How We Can Improve Our Justice System, Kastenmeier, Robert W., 72: 122-124 (Aug.-Sep. ’88, AJS Judicature)
    • Let The People Observe Their Courts (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 78: 116 (Nov.-Dec. ’94, AJS Judicature)
    • The limits of judicial selection research (letter), Andersen, William R., 94: 206 (Mar.-Apr. ’11, AJS Judicature)
    • Listening to Judge Lefkow (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 88: 240, 242 (May-June ’05, AJS Judicature)
    • Loose language (letter), Cohn, Avern, 91: 56 (Sep-Oct ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • Mandatory ADR: Can We Talk? (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 78: 272, 321 (May-Jun. ’95, AJS Judicature)
    • The media and jury deliberations: education or invasion? (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 87: 48, 88 (Sept.-Oct. ’03, AJS Judicature)
    • The media, the courts, and the public (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 83: 48 (Sept.-Oct. ’99, AJS Judicature)
    • Meeting the pro se challenge: an update (focus), Sampson, Kathleen M., 84: 326-328 (May-June ’01, AJS Judicature)
    • Merit Selection of U.S. Attorneys Urged (news), Author, No, 62: 101 (Aug. ’78, AJS Judicature)
    • Misguided judicial reform (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 81: 4 (July-Aug. ’97, AJS Judicature)
    • More progress (and politics) in federal judicial accountability (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 91: 268-269 (May-Jun ’08, AJS Judicature)
    • The Need for Education (letter), Holder, Janice M., 75: 227 (Dec.-Jan. ’92, AJS Judicature)
    • The need for expedited DNA analysis (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 82: 248 (May-June ’99, AJS Judicature)
    • The need for hortatory standards of judicial conduct (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 87: 96, 149 (Nov.-Dec. ’03, AJS Judicature)
    • The Need For Judicial Compensation Commissions, Author, No, 78: 6-11 (Jul.-Aug. ’94, AJS Judicature)
    • The Need for Judicial Performance Evaluations for Retention Elections (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 75: 124, 178 (Oct-Nov ’91, AJS Judicature)
    • New AJS Director Outlines Future Goals (news), Author, No, 60: 100 (Aug.-Sep. ’76, AJS Judicature)
    • New AJS Executive Committee 1979-80, Author, No, 63: 92-93 (Aug. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • New AJS research on judicial selection methods and judicial quality (brief), Reddick, Malia, 93: 259 (6, AJS Judicature)
    • A new approach to long-range planning for the federal courts (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 79: 4-5 (July-Aug. ’95, AJS Judicature)
    • New judicial diversity research from AJS (focus), Reddick, Malia, 93: 209 (5, AJS Judicature)
    • New lesson plan on the jury system (brief), Richert, David, 95: 249 (Mar-Apr ’11, AJS Judicature)
    • Nina Totenberg receives first annual Toni House Award (brief), Stanik, Kristine, 83: 87 (Sept.-Oct. ’99, AJS Judicature)
    • No Easy Answers: A Report on the National Conference for Judicial Conduct Organizations, Hoelzel, William, 64: 279-284 (Dec.-Jan. ’81, AJS Judicature)
    • Not far enough (letter), Cohn, Avern, 79: 101 (Sept.-Oct. ’95, AJS Judicature)
    • NSF Project Draws a Winner (news), Author, No, 61: 337 (Feb. ’78, AJS Judicature)
    • On An Independent National Institute of Justice (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 62: 212 (Nov. ’78, AJS Judicature)
    • On Fair and Adequate Compensation for Judges (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 64: 152 (Oct. ’80, AJS Judicature)
    • On Federal Judicial Conduct Legislation (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 63: 360 (Mar. ’80, AJS Judicature)
    • On Improved Benefits for Federal Judges (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 64: 342 (Mar. ’81, AJS Judicature)
    • On Limiting the Jurisdiction of Federal Courts (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 65: 124, 170 (Sep. ’81, AJS Judicature)
    • On Senior Federal Judges and The New Social Security Law (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 67: 108 (Sep. ’83, AJS Judicature)
    • On the Discipline and Removal of Federal Judges (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 61: 440 (May ’78, AJS Judicature)
    • On the Omnibus Judgeship Bill and Merit Selection (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 62: 4 (Jun.-Jul. ’78, AJS Judicature)
    • On the Selection of U.S. Attorneys (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 61: 396, 434 (Apr. ’78, AJS Judicature)
    • On the U.S. Circuit Judge Nominating Commission (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 63: 100 (Oct. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • An Open Letter to the New President About the Administration of Justice (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 76: 168-169 (Dec.-Jan. ’93, AJS Judicature)
    • An open letter to the new president about the administration of justice (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 84: 172 (Jan.-Feb. ’01, AJS Judicature)
    • Opening Up Federal Judicial Discipline (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 78: 4 (Jul.-Aug. ’94, AJS Judicature)
    • Oregon Citizens Discuss Ways to Improve their Court, Author, No, 61: 292-293 (Dec.-Jan. ’78, AJS Judicature)
    • The Overreaching Court (letter), Howrey, Edward, 65: 336-337 (Feb. ’82, AJS Judicature)
    • Pennsylvania Director Dies (news), Author, No, 61: 198 (Oct. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • The people behind court reform, Daffron, Sandra Ratcliff, 81: 229 (May-June ’98, AJS Judicature)
    • Politics and progress in federal judicial accountability (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 90: 52-53,92 (2, AJS Judicature)
    • The Practicing Bar (letter), Leake, Robert E., Jr., 62: 317 (Feb. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • Preserving liberty when the nation is at war (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 85: 56 (July-Aug. ’01, AJS Judicature)
    • Presidential candidates respond to AJS questions about justice system, Author, No, 80: 93-96 (Sept.-Oct. ’96, AJS Judicature)
    • Presidential candidates respond to questions about the justice system, Author, No, 84: 96-98 (Sept.-Oct. ’00, AJS Judicature)
    • Preventing the conviction of the innocent: a compelling and urgent need, Reno, Janet, 87: 163-165 (Jan.-Feb. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • The Problems with Mandatory Minimum Sentences (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 77: 124-125 (Nov.-Dec. ’93, AJS Judicature)
    • Professor, Judges Accept Harley Awards (news), Author, No, 60: 249-250 (Dec. ’76, AJS Judicature)
    • Projects by AJS, others, seek to foster understanding of the justice system (focus), Reddick, Malia, 92: 36-37 (1, AJS Judicature)
    • Promoting judicial independence (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 80: 152 (Jan.-Feb. ’97, AJS Judicature)
    • Promoting Public Understanding of the Supreme Court (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 76: 4, 42 (Jun.-Jul. ’92, AJS Judicature)
    • Public access: the ultimate guardian of fairness in our justice system, Zemans, Frances Kahn, 79: 173-175 (Jan.-Feb. ’96, AJS Judicature)
    • The public’s role in judicial discipline (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 86: 128 (Nov.-Dec. ’02, AJS Judicature)
    • Questions for the candidates, Editorial, AJS, 91: 108-109,134 (Nov-Dec ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • Raising Judicial Salaries for the Public Good (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 72: 144 (Oct.-Nov. ’88, AJS Judicature)
    • Reducing Delay In The Courts, Neubauer, David, 62: 111-113 (Sep. ’78, AJS Judicature)
    • Reducing Excessive Cost and Delay in the Civil Justice System (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 77: 4, 54 (Jul.-Aug. ’93, AJS Judicature)
    • Remembering Tom C. Clark (retrospect), Winters, Glenn R., 61: 135-136 (Sep. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • A Report on the Sixth National Conference for Judicial Conduct Organization, Hoelzel, Bill, 62: 357-362 (Feb. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • Report to the Members, Author, No, 69: 163-178 (Oct.-Nov. ’85, AJS Judicature)
    • Report to the Members, Author, No, 70: 177-194 (Oct.-Nov. ’86, AJS Judicature)
    • Report to the Members, Author, No, 71: 227-245 (Dec.-Jan. ’88, AJS Judicature)
    • A Reporter’s Notes on the Boston Conference, Devroy, Ann, 63: 249-250 (Nov. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • A rescue plan for the Justice Department (editorial), No, Author, 92: 144, 177 (4, AJS Judicature)
    • Responding to Judicial Alcohol Abuse (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 75: 4 (Jun.-Jul. ’91, AJS Judicature)
    • Restore habeas review for Guantanamo prisoners (editorial), Author, No, 91: 4, 43-44 (Jul-Aug ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • Restoring confidence in the criminal justice system (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 86: 64 (July-Aug. ’02, AJS Judicature)
    • Return to the first principles of juvenile justice (editorial), No, Author, 92: 256, 330 (6, AJS Judicature)
    • Returning to Private Practice: The Dilemmas Judges Face (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 73: 124 (Oct.-Nov. ’89, AJS Judicature)
    • Richard Spencer Childs: The Political Reformer and His Influence on the Work of the American Judicature Society, Hirschhorn, Bernard, 73: 184-191 (Dec.-Jan. ’90, AJS Judicature)
    • The role of AJS (letter), Leake, Robert E., Jr., 83: 177 (Jan.-Feb. ’00, AJS Judicature)
    • The Role of the Bar (letter), Foulis, Ronald, 74: 289 (Apr.-May ’91, AJS Judicature)
    • Rule 11: Moving Beyond the Cosmic Anecdote (focus), Kritzer, Herbert M., Marshall, Lawrence, and Zemans, Frances Kahn, 75: 269-272 (Feb.-Mar. ’92, AJS Judicature)
    • A rush to judgment (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 82: 52 (July-Aug. ’98, AJS Judicature)
    • Safeguarding human genetic privacy (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 86: 224 (Mar.-Apr. ’03, AJS Judicature)
    • Saving the Missouri Plan (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 91: 160, 211 (Jan-Feb ’08, AJS Judicature)
    • Schaefer, Weinfeld, Stagg Accept Harley Awards (news), Author, No, 61: 50 (Jun.-Jul. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • Schizophrenia (letter), Salibra, Lawrence A., II, 85: 49 (July-Aug. ’01, AJS Judicature)
    • The security of our liberty (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 88: 4, 44-45 (July-Aug. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • Sentencing Guidelines Of The Right Sort (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 78: 168 (Jan.-Feb. ’95, AJS Judicature)
    • Sentencing reform in the wake of Booker (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 88: 196, 231 (Mar.-Apr. ’05, AJS Judicature)
    • Separation of powers and mutual respect (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 87: 200-201 (Mar.-Apr. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • Shall we dance? The courts, the community, and the news media, Transcript, AJS, 80: 30-42 (July-Aug. ’96, AJS Judicature)
    • A significant battle, an ongoing war (editorial), Author, No, 95: 149-150 (Jan.-Feb. ’12, AJS Judicature)
    • Simpson’s trial and the rush to reform (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 79: 56-57 (Sept.-Oct. ’95, AJS Judicature)
    • Social science and public policy (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 83: 220 (Mar.-Apr. ’00, AJS Judicature)
    • Special Donors, Author, No, 60: 353-354 (Feb. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • The state of the state courts, Abrahamson, Shirley S., 87: 241-242 (Mar.-Apr. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • Statement before the Commission on Executive, Legislative and Judicial Salaries, D’Alemberte, Talbot, 69: 5-6 (Jun.-Jul. ’85, AJS Judicature)
    • Steps forward, steps back on judicial ethics (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 90: 100-101 (Nov-Dec ’06, AJS Judicature)
    • Strengthening the court-legislature relationship (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 81: 96 (Nov.-Dec. ’97, AJS Judicature)
    • A Study of the U.S. Circuit Judge Nominating Commission: Findings, Conclusions, Recommendations, Berkson, Larry C., Carbon, Susan, and Neff, Alan, 63: 104-129 (Sep. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • The Supreme Court and certiorari: what determines the agenda? (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 84: 112 (Nov.-Dec. ’00, AJS Judicature)
    • Supreme Court justices and the Code of Conduct (editorial), Author, No, 95: 4, 6 (July-Aug ’11, AJS Judicature)
    • Tell Us What You Think, Adams, Arlin M., 60: 465 (May ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • Tennesseans Confer On Courts As Constitutional Convention Nears (news), Adams, Arlin M., 60: 457-458 (Apr. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • A Threat to the Future of Society, Carpenter, E.N., II and Wallace, Martha Redfield, 66: 228 (Dec.-Jan. ’83, AJS Judicature)
    • Three branches, not two: Congress should reconsider recent assaults on federal court sentencing discretion (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 86: 276, 324 (May-June ’03, AJS Judicature)
    • Three Receive Harley Awards (news), Author, No, 60: 196 (Nov. ’76, AJS Judicature)
    • Time for the AJS Jury Center (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 85: 4 (July-Aug. ’01, AJS Judicature)
    • Time to reexamine the U.S. sentencing guidelines and mandatory penalties (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 83: 176 (Jan.-Feb. ’00, AJS Judicature)
    • Tom C. Clark: Certified Champion of Justice, Adams, Arlin M., 61: 101, 136 (Sep. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • Tom Phillips receives prestigious Justice Award (brief), Eckley, Timothy S., 91: 151-152 (Nov-Dec ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • Toward More Effective Chief Trial Court Judges (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 75: 184 (Dec.-Jan. ’92, AJS Judicature)
    • Trial Court Democracy (letter), Burke, Kevin S., 75: 288 (Apr.-May ’92, AJS Judicature)
    • A Tribute to Robert W. Kastenmeier (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 74: 176 (Dec.-Jan. ’91, AJS Judicature)
    • Two Former AJS Chairmen, Laurance Hyde and James Dezendorf, Die (news), Author, No, 61: 434 (Apr. ’78, AJS Judicature)
    • The U.S. Circuit Judge Nominating Commission: A Comparison of Two of Its Panels, Carbon, Susan, 62: 233-245 (Nov. ’78, AJS Judicature)
    • The U.S. Circuit Judge Nominating Commission: The Candidates’ Perspective, Berkson, Larry C., 62: 466-482 (May ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • An unprecedented budget crisis (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 89: 100, 102 (Nov.-Dec. ’05, AJS Judicature)
    • Unsound criticisms (letter), Mengler, Thomas M., 79: 57, 100 (Sept.-Oct. ’95, AJS Judicature)
    • Upholding judicial ethics standards (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 81: 184 (Mar.-Apr. ’98, AJS Judicature)
    • Vermont Citizens Conference Spotlights Court Needs (news), Author, No, 60: 151 (Oct. ’76, AJS Judicature)
    • The Voting Rights Act and Judicial Elections: An Update on Current Legislation, Author, No, 73: 74-81 (Aug.-Sep. ’89, AJS Judicature)
    • The war on courts and other wars (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 90: 148,150 (Jan-Feb ’07, AJS Judicature)
    • What judicial candidates can say (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 84: 4 (July-Aug. ’00, AJS Judicature)
    • What Members Say About AJS, A Report on the Membership Survey, Author, No, 61: 241 (Nov. ’77, AJS Judicature)
    • What should judicial candidates talk to voters about (editorial), Reddick, Malia, 93: 224, 226 (6, AJS Judicature)
    • Who Rules The Courts? The Issue of Access to the Rulemaking Process, Grau, Charles W., 62: 428-435 (Apr. ’79, AJS Judicature)
    • Why the Judicial Conference Opposes S. 1873 (editorial reply), Hunter, Elmo B., 63: 413, 456-457 (Apr. ’80, AJS Judicature)
    • With unseemly speed (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 88: 52, 101 (Sept.-Oct. ’04, AJS Judicature)
    • Resources

      See Also

      Notes and References

      1. Definition of Judiciary from the American Law Dictionary, 1991, California
      2. Id
      3. This definition of Judiciary is based on the Cyclopedic Law Dictionary . This definition may need to be proofread.

      Further Reading (Books)

      “For further discussion and additional references to the literature, see the introduction and the bibliography inSchubert 1963a.The research published during the period 1955—1962 is summarized in greater detail in a biblio-graphical article, Schubert 1963c.Examples of studies of historical significance and of all ten analytical types (including many of the references cited in the present article) are reprinted in Schubert 1964.

      Baade, Hans W. (editor) (1963) 1964 Jurimetrics.

      New York: Basic Books. ? First published in Volume 28 of Law and Contemporary Problems.

      Becker, Theodore L. 1966 Political Behavioralism and Modern Jurisprudence: A Working Theory and Study in Judicial Decision-making. Chicago: Rand McNally.

      Bernard, Jessie 1955 Dimensions and Axes of Supreme Court Decisions: A Study in the Sociology of Conflict. SocialForces 34:19–27.

      Cohen, Felix S. 1935 Transcendental Nonsense and the Functional Approach.Columbia Law Review 35: 809–849.

      Coombs, Clyde H. 1964 A Theory of Data. New York: Wiley.

      Danelski, David J. 1965 A Supreme Court Justice Is Appointed. New York: Random House.

      Frank, Jerome (1930) 1949 Law and the Modern Mind. New York: Coward.

      Frankfurter, Felix; and Landis, James M. 1927 The Business of the Supreme Court: A Study in the Federal Judicial System. New York: Macmillan.

      Frontiers of Legal Research. 1963 American Behavioral Scientist 7, no. 4. -> Special issue.

      Gaudet, Frederick J. 1938 Individual Differences in the Sentencing Tendencies of Judges.Archives of Psychology 32, no. 230.”

      Further Reading (Books 2)

      “Gluckman, Max 1965aThe Ideas in Barotse Jurisprudence. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.

      Gluckman, Max 1965kPolitics, Law and Ritual in

      Tribal Society. Oxford: Blackwell; Chicago: Aldine.

      Grunbaum, Werner F.; and NEWHOUSE, ALBERT 1965 Quantitative Analysis of Judicial Decisions: Some Problems in Prediction.Houston Law Review 3:201–220.

      Guttman, Louis 1954 The Principal Components of Scalable Attitudes. Pages 216–257 in Paul F. Lazarsfeld (editor), Mathematical Thinking in the Social Sciences. Glencoe, 111.: Free Press.

      Haines, Charles G. 1922 General Observations on the Effects of Personal, Political, and Economic Influences in the Decisions of Judges.Illinois Law Review 17: 96–116.

      Hayakawa, Takeo (1962) 1964 Civil Liberties in the Japanese Supreme Court. Pages 325–334 in Glendon Schubert (editor), Judicial Behavior: A Reader in Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally. -> A partial reprinting of “Legal Science and Judicial Behavior, With Particular Reference to Civil Liberties in the Japanese Supreme Court,” published in theKobe University Law Review, No. 2, pages 1–27.

      Herndon, James (1962) 1964 The Role of the Judiciary in State Political Systems. Pages 153–161 in Glendon Schubert (editor), Judicial Behavior: A Reader in Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally. -> Paper delivered at the Midwest Conference of Political Scientists, April 1962.

      Hoebel, E. Adamson 1961 Three Studies in African Law.Stanford Law Review 13:418–442.

      Jacob, Herbert; and Vines, Kenneth N. (editors) 1965 Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis. Boston: Little. -> See especially Chapter 7 on “Courts and Political and Governmental Agencies.” KRISLOV, SAMUEL 1965 The Supreme Court in the Political Process. New York: Macmillan.

      Lasswell, Harold D. 1948 Power and Personality. New York: Norton.

      Llewellyn, Karl N.; and HOEBEL, E. ADAMSON 1941 The Cheyenne Way: Conflict and Case Law in Primitive Jurisprudence. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.”

      Further Reading (Articles)

      “Loeb, Louis S. 1965 Judicial Blocs and Judicial Values in Civil Liberties Cases Decided by the Supreme Court and the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. American University Law Review 14:146–177.

      March, James G. 1956 Sociological Jurisprudence Revisited: A Review (More or Less) of Max Gluckman [The Judicial Process Among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia]. Stanford Law Review 8:499–534.

      Mott, Rodney L. 1936 Judicial Influence.American Political Science Review 30:295–315.

      Mott, Rodney L.; Albright, S. D.; and Semmerling, H. R. 1933 Judicial Personnel. American Academy of Political and Social Science, Annals 167:143–155. MURPHY, WALTER F. 1964 Elements of Judicial Strategy. Univ. of Chicago Press.

      Nagel, Stuart S. 1962 Testing Relations Between Judicial Characteristics and Judicial Decision-making. Western Political Quarterly 15:425–437.

      Nagel, Stuart S. 1965 Predicting Court Cases Quantitatively.Michigan Law Review 63:1411–1422. PELTASON, JACK W. 1955 Federal Courts in the Political Process. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.

      Peltason, Jack W. 1961 Fifty-eight Lonely Men: Southern Federal Judges and School Desegregation.Introduction by Paul Douglas. New York: Harcourt. PRITCHETT, C. HERMAN (1948) 1963 The Roosevelt Court: A Study in Judicial Politics and Values, 1937–1947. New York: Octagon Books.

      Sayre, Wallace S.; and Kaufman, Herbert 1960 Governing New York City: Politics in the Metropolis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

      Schmidhauser, John R. 1959 The Justices of the Supreme Court: A Collective Portrait.Midwest Journal of Political Science 3:1–57.

      Schmidhauser, John R. 1962 Stare Decisis, Dissent and the Background of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.University of Toronto Law Journal 14:194–212.”

      More Related Articles

      “Schubert, Glendon 1960aQuantitative Analysis of Judicial Behavior. Glencoe, 111.: Free Press.

      Schubert, Glendon1960b Constitutional Politics: The Political Behavior of Supreme Court Justices and the Constitutional Policies That They Make. New York: Holt.

      Schubert, Glendon 1962a A Solution to the Indeterminate Factorial Resolution of Thurstone and Degan’s Study of the Supreme Court. Behavioral Science 7: 448–458.

      Schubert, Glendon 1962b Policy Without Law: An Extension of the Certiorari Game.Stanford Law Review 14:284–327.

      Schubert, Glendon (editor) 1963aJudicial Decision-making. International Yearbook of Political Behavior Research, Vol. 4. New York: Free Press.

      Schubert, Glendon 1963b Judicial Attitudes and Voting Behavior: The 1961 Term of the United States Supreme Court.Law and Contemporary Problems 28: 100–142.

      Schubert, Glendon 1963c Behavioral Research in Public Law.American Political Science Review 57:433–445.

      Schubert, Glendon (editor) 1964 Judicial Behavior: A Reader in Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally.

      Schubert, Glendon 1965aJudicial Policy-making: The Political Role of the Courts. Chicago: Scott, Foresman. SCHUBERT, GLENDON 1965bThe Judicial Mind: The Attitudes and Ideologies of Supreme Court Justices, 1946–1963. Evanston, 111.: Northwestern Univ. Press.

      Schubert, Glendon 1965c Jackson’s Judicial Philosophy: An Exploration in Value Analysis.American Political Science Review 59:940–963.

      Schubert, Glendon 1966 The Future of Public Law. George Washington Law Review 34:591–661.

      Shapiro, Martin 1964 Law and Politics in the Supreme Court: New Approaches to Political Jurisprudence.New York: Free Press.” “Snyder, Eloise C. 1958 The Supreme Court as a Small Group.Social Forces 36:232–238.

      Somit, Albert; Tanenhaus, Joseph; and Wilke, Walter 1960 Aspects of Judicial Sentencing Behavior.University of Pittsburgh Law Review 21:613–620.

      Stouffer, Samuel A. et al. 1950 Measurement and Prediction. Studies in Social Psychology in World War II, Vol. 4. Princeton Univ. Press.

      Thurstone, Louis L.; and Degan, J. W. 1951 A Factorial Study of the Supreme Court. National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings 37:628–635.

      Ulmer, S. Sidney 1960a The Analysis of Behavior Patterns on the United States Supreme Court.Journal of Politics 22:629–653.

      Ulmer, S. Sidney 1960b; Supreme Court Behavior and Civil Rights.Western Political Quarterly 13:288–311.

      Ulmer, S. Sidney (editor) 1961 Introductory Readings in Political Behavior. Chicago: Rand McNally. ? See especially pages 167–189 on “Homeostatic Tendencies in the United States Supreme Court” by S. Sidney Ulmer.

      Ulmer, S. Sidney 1965 Toward a Theory of Sub-group Formation in the United States Supreme Court.Journal of Politics 27:133–152.

      Vines, Kenneth N.; and Jacob, Herbert 1963 Studies in Judicial Politics. Tulane University Studies in Political Science, Vol. 8. New Orleans, La.: The University.

      Vose, Clement E. 1959 Caucasians Only: The Supreme Court, the NAACP, and the Restrictive Covenant Cases.Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.” “Anderson, William 1955 Intention of the Framers: A Note on Constitutional Interpretation. American Political Science Review 49:340–352.

      Beveridge, Albert J. 1916–1919 The Life of John Marshall 4 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ? Volume 1: Frontiersman, Soldier, Lawmaker, 1755–1788. Volume 2: Politician, Diplomatist, Statesman, 1789–1801. Volume 3: Conflict and Construction, 1800–1815. Volume 4: The Building of the Nation, 1815–1835. Brandeis, Louis d. 1957 The Unpublished Opinions of Mr. Justice Erandeis: The Supreme Court at Work. Selected and edited by Alexander M. Bickel. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press. ? Published posthumously.

      Cantril, Hadley 1957 Perception and Interpersonal Relations. American Journal of Psychiatry 114:119–126.

      Cardozo, Benjamin N. (1921) 1960 The Nature of the Judicial Process. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. Corwin, Edward S. (1909–1952) 1964 American Constitutional History: Essays. New York: Harper.

      Corwin, Edward S. 1914 The Doctrine of Judicial Review: Its Legal and Historical Basis, and Other Essays. Princeton Univ. Press.

      Corwin, Edward S. 1925 Constitution v. Constitutional Theory. American Political Science Review 19:290–304.

      Corwin, Edward S. 1934 The Twilight of the Supreme Court: A History of Our Constitutional Theory. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.

      Danelski, David J. 1964 Values as Variables in Judicial Decision-making: Notes Toward a Theory. Unpublished manuscript. ? A paper delivered at the 1964 annual meeting of the Midwest Conference of Political Scientists.

      Fairman, Charles 1939 Mr. Justice Miller and the Supreme Court: 1862–1890. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.

      Frank, Jerome (1930) 1949 Law and the Modern Mind. New York: Coward.” “Frankfurter, Felix 1934 Supreme Court, United States. Volume 14, pages 474–482 in Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan.

      Haines, Charles G. 1922 General Observations on the Effects of Personal, Political, and Economic Influences in the Decisions of Judges. Illinois Law Review 17: 96–116.

      Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1881) 1963 The Common Law. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.

      Jefferson, Thomas The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. 20 vols. Washington: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association of the United States, 1905.

      Lasswell, Harold D. (1930a) 1960 Psychopathology and Politics. New ed., with afterthoughts by the author. New York: Viking.

      Lasswell, Harold D. 1930b Self-analysis and Judicial Thinking. International Journal of Ethics 40:354–362.

      Llewellyn, Karl N. (1928–1960)1962 Jurisprudence: Realism in Theory and Practice. Univ. of Chicago Press. ? See especially pages 431–465 on “A Realistic Jurisprudence: The Next Step.”

      Mcwninney, Edward (1956) 1960 Judicial Review in the English-speaking World. 2d ed. Univ. of Toronto Press.

      Mcwninney, Edward 1962 Constitutionalism in Germany and the Federal Constitutional Court. Leiden (Netherlands): Sythoff.

      Mason, Alpheus T. 1946 Brandeis: A Free Man’s Life. New York: Viking.

      Mason, Alpheus T. 1956 Harlan Fiske Stone: Pillar of the Law. New York: Viking.” “Mason, Alpheus T. 1965 William Howard Taft: Chief Justice. New York: Simon & Schuster.

      Murphy, Walter F. 1964 Elements of Judicial Strategy. Univ. of Chicago Press.

      Pritchett, C. Herman (1948) 1963 The Roosevelt Court: A Study in Judicial Politics and Values, 1937–1947. New York: Octagon Books.

      Pritchett, C. Herman 1954 Civil Liberties and the Vinson Court. Univ. of Chicago Press.

      Schroeder, Theodore 1918 The Psychologic Study of Judicial Opinions. California Law Review 6:89–113.

      Schubert, Glendon (1959) 1960 Quantitative Analysis of Judicial Behavior. Glencoe, 111.: Free Press.

      Schubert, Glendon 1962 The 1960 Term of the Supreme Court: A Psychological Analysis. American Political Science Review 56:90–107.

      Schubert, Glendon 1963a Judicial Attitudes and Voting Behavior: The 1961 Term of the United States Supreme Court. Law and Contemporary Problems 28: 100–142.

      Schubert, Glendon (editor) 1963b Judicial Decision-making. International Yearbook of Political Behavior Research, Vol. 4. New York: Free Press. ? See especially pages 201–219 on “Conscientious Objectors Before Norwegian Military Courts” by V. Aubert and pages 221–244 on “The Role of the Supreme Court in the Norwegian Political System” by Ulf Torgerson.

      Schubert, Glendon 1963c Behavioral Research in Public Law: Bibliographical Essay. American Political Science Review 57:433–445. ? This bibliographical article contains a fine discussion of some of the literature on judicial behavior published up to 1962. The discussion, however, is largely limited to writings employing quantitative research techniques.” “Schubert, Glendon (editor) 1964 Judicial Behavior: A Reader in Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally. ? See especially pages 234–259 and 325–334. SCHUBERT, GLENDON 1965 The Judicial Mind: The Attitudes and Ideologies of Supreme Court Justices, 1946–1963. Evanston, 111.: Northwestern Univ. Press.

      Shapiro, Martin 1964 Law and Politics in the Supreme Court: New Approaches to Political Jurisprudence. New York: Free Press.

      Slesser, Henry H. 1962 The Art of Judgment, and Other Studies. London: Stevens.

      Sollie, Finn 1958 Courts and Constitutions: A Comparative Study of Judicial Review in Norway and the United States. Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins Univ.

      Swisher, Carl B. (1930) 1963 Stephen J. Field: Craftsman of the Law. Hamden, Conn.: Shoe String Press.

      Swisher, Carl B. (1935) 1961 Roger B. Taney. Hamden, Conn.: Shoe String Press.

      White, Ralph K. 1947 Black Boy: A Value-analysis. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 42:440–461.” “Braden, George D. 1948 The Search for Objectivity in Constitutional Law. Yale Law Journal 57:571—594.

      Cahn, Edmond N. 1951 Authority and Responsibility. Columbia Law Review 51:838—851.

      Cardozo, Benjamin N. (1921) 1960 The Nature of the Judicial Process. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.

      Cardozo, Benjamin N. 1928 The Paradoxes of Legal Science. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

      Chafee, Zechariah 1947 Do Judges Make or Discover Law? American Philosophical Society, Proceedings 91:405—420.

      Dicey, Albert V. (1905) 1962 Lectures on the Relation Between Law and Public Opinion in England During the Nineteenth Century. 2d ed. London and New York: Macmillan.

      Frankfurter, Felix 1954 Some Observations on the Nature of the Judicial Process of Supreme Court Litigation. American Philosophical Society, Proceedings 98:233—239.

      Friedmann, Wolfgang (1945) 1960 Legal Theory. 4th ed. London: Stevens.

      Hand, Learned (1952) 1960 The Spirit of Liberty: Papers and Addresses. 3d ed., enl. Collected and with an introduction and notes by Irving Dilliard. New York: Knopf.

      Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1881) 1963 The Common Law. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.

      Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1885—1918) 1952 Collected Legal Papers. New York: Smith.

      Pollock, Frederick 1929 Judicial Caution and Valour. Law Quarterly Review 45:293—306.

      Pound, Roscoe 1921 The Spirit of the Common Law. Boston: Jones.

      Pound, Roscoe 1959 Jurisprudence. 5 vols. St. Paul, Minn.: West. ? Volume 1: Jurisprudence: The End of Law. Volume 2: The Nature of Law. Volume 3: The Scope and Subject Matter of Law. Volume 4: Application and Enforcement of Law. Volume 5: The System of Law.

      Stone, Harlan F. 1936 The Common Law in the United States. Harvard Law Review 50:4—26.

      Thayer, James B. 1893 The Origin and Scope of the American Doctrine of Constitutional Law. Harvard Law Review 7:129—156.” “Abraham, Henry J. 1962 The Judicial Process: An Introductory Analysis of the Courts of the United States, England, and France. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

      Calamandrei, Piero (1935) 1942 Eulogy of Judges. Princeton Univ. Press. ? First published in Italian under the titleElogio del giudici: Scritto da un avvocato.

      Carr-saunders, Alexander; and Wilson, P. A. 1933 The Professions. Oxford: Clarendon.

      Dawson, John P. 1960 A History of Lay Judges. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.

      Donahue, Wilma T.; and Tibbitts, Clark (editors) 1962 Politics of Age. University of Michigan Conference on Aging, 1961. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan.

      Ewing, Cortez A. M. 1938 The Judges of the Supreme Court, 1789–1937. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

      Haynes, Evan 1944 The Selection and Tenure of Judges. Newark, N.J.: National Conference of Judicial Councils.

      Herndon, James 1962 Appointment as a Means of Initial Accession to Elective State Courts of Last Resort. North Dakota Law Review 38:60–73.

      Kent, James (1826–1830) 1844 Commentaries on American Law. 4 vols. 5th ed. New York: The Author. ? A fourteenth edition was published in 1896 by Little, Brown of Boston.

      Llewellyn, Karl N. 1936–1937 On Warranty of Quality, and Society. Columbia Law Review 36:699–744; 37:341–409.

      Mott, Rodney L. 1936 Judicial Influence. American Political Science Review 30:295–315.” “Mott, Rodney L. 1948 The Measurement of Judicial Personnel. New York University Law Quarterly Review 23:262–277.

      Mott, Rodney L.; Albright, S. P.; and SEMMERLING, H. R. 1933 Judicial Personnel. American Academy of Political and Social Science, Annals 167:143–155. NAGEL, STUART S. 1961 Political Party Affiliation and Judges’ Decisions. American Political Science Review 55:843’850.

      Nagel, Stuart S. 1962 Ethnic Affiliations and Judicial Propensities. Journal of Politics 24:92–110.

      Powell, Thomas Reed 1924 The Judicially of Minimum Wage Legislation. Harvard Law Review 37:545–553.

      Schmidhauser, John R. 1960 The Supreme Court: Its Politics, Personalities and Procedures. New York: Holt.

      Schubert, Glendon 1960 Quantitative Analysis of Judicial Behavior. Glencoe, 111.: Free Press.

      Washington Foreign Law Society 1956 Studies in the Law of the Far East and Southeast Asia. Washington: The Society.

      Yanaga, Chitoshi 1956 Japanese People and Politics. New York: Wiley.” “Berger, Raoul. Government by Judiciary. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977.

      Bickel, Alexander M. The Supreme Court and the Idea of Progress. New York: Harper and Row, 1970.

      Hall, Kermit L. The Magic Mirror: Law in American History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

      Horwitz, Morton J. The Transformation of American Law, 1780–1860. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977.

      ———. The Warren Court and the Pursuit of Justice. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.

      Kelly, Alfred H., Winfred A. Harbison, and Herman Belz. The American Constitution: Its Origins and Development. 7th ed. New York: Norton, 1991.

      Kutler, Stanley I. Privilege and Creative Destruction: The “Charles River Bridge” Case. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1971.

      McCloskey, Robert G. The American Supreme Court. 3d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

      Nelson, William E. The Americanization of the Common Law: The Impact of Legal Change on Massachusetts Society, 1760–1830. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975.

      Olson, Walter K. The Litigation Explosion: What Happened When America Unleashed the Lawsuit. New York: Truman Talley Books–Dutton, 1991.

      Pound, Roscoe. The Formative Era of American Law. Boston: Little, Brown, 1938.

      Presser, Stephen B., and Jamil S. Zainaldin, eds. Law and Jurisprudence in American History. 4th ed. St. Paul, Minn.: West Group, 2000.

      Yarbrough, Tinsley E. The Burger Court: Justices, Rulings, and Legacy. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC–CLIO, 2000.

      ———. The Rehnquist Court and the Constitution. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

      Stephen B.Presser” “Abraham, Henry J. 1998. The Judicial Process: An Introductory Analysis of the Courts of the United States, England, and France. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

      Baum, Lawrence. 2001. American Courts: Process and Policy. 5th ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

      Jacob, Herbert, Erhard Blankenburg, Herbert M. Kritzer, and Doris Marie Provine. 1996. Courts, Law, and Politics in Comparative Perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

      Segal, Jeffrey A., and Harold J. Spaeth. 2002. The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model Revisited. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

      Stone-Sweet, Alec. 2000. Governing with Judges: Constitutional Politics in Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.

      Tate, C. Neal, and Torbjörn Vallinder, eds. 1995. The Global Expansion of Judicial Power. New York: New York University Press.

      Wendy L. Watson” “Cherishing judiciary’s independence, New Straits Times; March 19, 2014; Dr Chandra Muzaffar
      Independent Judiciary: Sine qua non for democracy, THE INDEPENDENT, The Independent (Bangladesh); March 19, 2002; Muhit Rahman
      Annual Judiciary gathering held in Tehran., Mehr News Agency (MNA); June 27, 2010
      Judiciary is accountable to the Constitution, THE INDEPENDENT, The Independent (Bangladesh); June 20, 2002; Justice Mainur Reza Chowdhury
      New York Judiciary Defends Budget Request above Cap, Daily Record (Rochester, NY); February 6, 2014; Champagne, Denise M
      Lower Judiciary Doing Well: CJ, The Nation (Karachi, Pakistan); July 10, 2011
      Making separation of Judiciary meaningful, The New Nation (Dhaka, India); April 1, 2009
      Independence of the judiciary, The Sunday Observer; June 14, 2009
      Making separation of judiciary meaningful, The New Nation (Dhaka, India); December 27, 2008
      TOWARDS A TRANSPARENT JUDICIARY, Hindustan Times (New Delhi, India); February 3, 2007
      Bargain Basement Judiciary, The Washington Post; March 23, 2008; George F Will
      Turkey’s Illiberal Judiciary: Cases and Decisions, Insight Turkey; September 22, 2010; Coskun, Vahap
      Tunisia: Improve Guarantees for Judicial Independence Ensure Judiciary Has Powers to Protect Human Rights, States News Service; January 13, 2014
      President Never Influenced the Judiciary – Minister Anura Yapa, Daily News (Colombo, Sri Lanka); October 26, 2012
      Commentary: Judicial activism essential to protect judiciary’s image, The New Nation (Dhaka, India); November 5, 2009
      Countrywide Protests Back Judiciary, The Nation (Karachi, Pakistan); February 14, 2010
      Bhagwandas sees free judiciary revival., The Nation (Karachi, Pakistan); October 23, 2008
      New York Governor: Bring Judiciary Budget ‘In Line’, Daily Record (Rochester, NY); January 22, 2014; Champagne, Denise M
      New York’s Gov. Cuomo Approves Judiciary Budget above Cap, Daily Record (Rochester, NY); April 17, 2014; Champagne, Denise M
      ADMINISTRATIVE JUDICIARY SEMINAR, Info-Prod Research (Middle East); June 25, 2008”

    Judiciary: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

    Federal Primary Materials

    The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Judiciary. This part provides references, in relation to Judiciary, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

    Federal primary materials about Judiciary by content types:

    Laws and Regulations

    US Constitution
    Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

    Federal Case Law and Court Materials

    U.S. Courts of Appeals
    United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

    Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

    Presidential Materials

    Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

    Executive Materials

    Federal Legislative History Materials

    Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Judiciary and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Judiciary or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

    State Administrative Materials and Resources

    State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Judiciary and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Judiciary. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Judiciary should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

    State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

    State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Judiciary when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

    Tools and Forms

    Law in Other Regions

    *This resource guide is updated frequently. However, if you notice something is wrong or not working, or any resources that should be added, please notify us in any of the "Leave a Comment" area.

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