Executive Office of the President

Executive Office of the President in the United States

Under authority of the Reorganization Act of 1939 (5 U.S.C. 133-133r, 133t note), various agencies were transferred to the Executive Office of the President by the President’s Reorganization Plans I and II of 1939 (5 U.S.C. app.), effective July 1, 1939. Executive Order 8248 of September 8, 1939, established the divisions of the Executive Office and defined their functions. Subsequently, Presidents have used Executive orders, reorganization plans, and legislative initiatives to reorganize the Executive Office to make its composition compatible with the goals of their administrations.

To provide the President with the support that he or she needs to govern effectively, the Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Every day, the President of the United States is faced with scores of decisions, each with important consequences for America’s future. To provide the President with the support that he or she needs to govern effectively, the Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The EOP has responsibility for tasks ranging from communicating the President’s message to the American people to promoting our trade interests abroad.

Overseen by the White House Chief of Staff, the EOP has traditionally been home to many of the President’s closest advisors.

The following entities exist within the Executive Office of the President:

  • Council of Economic Advisers
  • Council on Environmental Quality
  • Executive Residence
  • National Security Council
  • Office of Administration
  • Office of Management and Budget
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy
  • Office of Science and Technology Policy
  • Office of the United States Trade Representative
  • Office of the Vice President
  • White House Office (see below)

In addition, the following entities exist within the White House Office:

  • Domestic Policy Council (which includes: Office of National AIDS Policy, Office of Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships, Office of Social Innovation and Civic Participation and White House Rural Council)
  • National Security Advisor
  • National Economic Council
  • Office of Cabinet Affairs
  • Office of the Chief of Staff
  • Office of Communications (which includes: Office of the Press Secretary, Media Affairs, Research and Speechwriting)
  • Office of Digital Strategy
  • Office of the First Lady (which includes the Office of the Social Secretary)
  • Office of Legislative Affairs
  • Office of Management and Administration ((which includes: White House Personnel, White House Operations, Telephone Office and Visitors Office)
  • Oval Office Operations
  • Office of Presidential Personnel
  • Office of Public Engagement and Intergovernmental Affairs (which includes: Office of Public Engagement -which includes the Council on Women and Girls-, Office of Intergovernmental Affairs and Office of Urban Affairs)
  • Office of Scheduling and Advance
  • Office of the Staff Secretary (which includes Presidential Correspondence, Executive Clerk and Records Management)
  • Office of the White House Counsel

White House Office

The White House Office serves the President in the performance of the many detailed activities incident to his immediate office.

The President’s staff facilitates and maintains communication with the Congress, the heads of executive agencies, the press and other information media, and the general public. The various Assistants to the President aid the President in such matters as he may direct.

Office of the Vice President

The Office of the Vice President serves the Vice President in the performance of the many activities incident to his immediate office.

Council of Economic Advisers

The Council of Economic Advisers analyzes and appraises the national economy to make policy recommendations to the President.

The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) was established in the Executive Office of the President by the Employment Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1023). It now functions under that statute and Reorganization Plan No. 9 of 1953 (5 U.S.C. app.), effective August 1, 1953. The Chair and the two Members govern the Council. The President appoints the Chair, whom the United States Senate must confirm, and the two Members.

The Council of Economic Advisers analyzes the national economy and its various segments; advises the President on economic developments; appraises the economic programs and policies of the Federal Government; recommends policies for economic growth and stability to the President; assists in the preparation of the President’s economic reports to the Congress; and prepares the Annual Report of the Council of Economic Advisers.

The Council of Economic Advisers is supported by a staff of professional senior economists, staff economists and research assistants, as well as a statistical office.

Establishment of the Council of Economic Advisers

The Council of Economic Advisers was established by Congress in the Employment Act of 1946. The portion of the bill that authorizes the Council is presented below:

“There is hereby created in the Executive Office of the President a Council of Economic Advisers (hereinafter called the “Council”). The Council (of Economic Advisers) shall be composed of three members who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and each of whom shall be a person who, as a result of his training, experience, and attainments, is exceptionally qualified to analyze and interpret economic developments, to appraise programs and activities of the Government in the light of the policy declared in section 2, and to formulate and recommend national economic policy to promote employment, production, and purchasing power under free competitive enterprise. The President shall designate one of the members of the Council as Chairman.

It shall be the duty and function of the Council:

1. to assist and advise the President in the preparation of the Economic Report;

2. to gather timely and authoritative information concerning economic developments and economic trends, both current and prospective, to analyze and interpret such information in the light of the policy declared in section 2 for the purpose of determining whether such developments and trends are interfering, or are likely to interfere, with the achievement of such policy, and to compile and submit to the President studies relating to such developments and trends;

3. to appraise the various programs and activities of the Federal Government in the light of the policy declared in section 2 for the purpose of determining the extent to which such programs and activities are contributing, and the extent to which they are not contributing, to the achievement of such policy, and to make recommendations to the President with respect thereto;

4. to develop and recommend to the President national economic policies to foster and promote free competitive enterprise, to avoid economic fluctuations or to diminish the effects thereof, and to maintain employment, production, and purchasing power;

5. to make and furnish such studies, reports thereon, and recommendations with respect to matters of Federal economic policy and legislation as the President may request.”

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)

The CEQ formulates and recommends national policies and initiatives for improving the environment. The Council on Environmental Quality was established within the Executive Office of the President by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.). The Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970 (42 U.S.C. 4371 et seq.) established the OEQ to provide professional and administrative support for the Council. The Council on Environmental Quality and OEQ are referred to, collectively, as the Council on Environmental Quality. The CEQ Chair, whom the President appoints and the Senate confirms, serves as Director of the CEQ.

The CEQ develops policies that bring together the Nation’s economic, social, and environmental priorities to improve Federal decisionmaking. As required by NEPA, the Council on Environmental Quality also evaluates, coordinates, and mediates Federal activities. It advises and assists the President on both national and international environmental policy matters. It oversees Federal agency and departmental implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.

As mentioned in its website, the Council on Environmental Quality works to advance the President’s agenda. It also balances competing positions, and encourages government-wide coordination, bringing Federal agencies, state and local governments, and other stakeholders together on matters relating to the environment, natural resources and energy.

In addition, Council on Environmental Quality oversees the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive. The role of the Federal Environmental Executive is to promote sustainable environmental stewardship throughout the Federal government.

In addition, Council on Environmental Quality oversees Federal agency implementation of the environmental impact assessment process and acts as a referee when agencies disagree over the adequacy of such assessments.

In enacting the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Congress recognized that nearly all Federal activities affect the environment in some way and mandated that before Federal agencies make decisions, they must consider the effects of their actions on the quality of the human environment. Under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, CEQ works to balance environmental, economic, and social objectives in pursuit of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969’s goal of “productive harmony” between humans and the human environment. 42 U.S.C. §4331(a).

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 assigns the Council on Environmental Quality the task of ensuring that Federal agencies meet their obligations under the Act. The challenge of harmonizing our economic, environmental and social aspirations has put the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and CEQ at the forefront of our nation’s efforts to protect the environment.

National Security Council

Office of Administration

Office of Management and Budget

Office of National Drug Control Policy

Office of Policy Development

Domestic Policy Council

National Economic Council

Office of Science and Technology Policy

Office of the United States Trade Representative

Executive Office of the President: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Executive Office of the President. This part provides references, in relation to Executive Office of the President, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Executive Office of the President by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Executive Office of the President and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Executive Office of the President or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Executive Office of the President and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Executive Office of the President. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Executive Office of the President should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Executive Office of the President when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

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