The American Medical Association’s Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA) publishes a Code of Medical Ethics, comprised of CEJA Opinions, CEJA Reports, the Principals of Medical Ethics, the Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship. Some of this material is available through the AMA Code of Professional Ethics page. The Code is included in the AMA’s Policy Finder, or you can purchase an print copy with annotations from the AMA Bookstore. For questions about AMA ethics, call the General Counsel’s office at the AMA headquarters in Chicago (312-464-5448).
For more information, questions, etc., try calling the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (202-334-2352), one of its regional libraries and/or another medical library or association. You may also want to check the Encyclopedia of Associations(available as a multi-volume hard cover, on the Gale Directory Library and on Lexis (ENASSC)) to find relevant associations and their telephone numbers.
Tuskegee Syphilis Study in relation to Crime and Race
Tuskegee Syphilis Study is included in the Encyclopedia of Race and Crime (1), beginning with: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study is most often remembered for its unethical research design rather than for any significant scientific findings. When the study’s true nature was made public, 40 years after the project began, the effect was not only a national scandal but a considerable increase in distrust by African Americans toward the U.S. government. This section examines the design and implementation of the Tuskegee study and discusses its lasting social implications and its impact on research methodology and ethics. In 1928 a Chicago-based philanthropic organization, the Julius Rosenwald Fund, approached the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) in an effort to improve health care services and education for Black Americans in the rural South. Previously, the PHS had conducted a study in Mississippi concluding that 25% of more than 2,000 Black participants had tested positive for syphilis.
The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Ethics. This part provides references, in relation to Ethics, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).
Federal primary materials about Ethics by content types:
Administrative decisions by federal agency provides links to administrative actions that are outside the scope of the CFR or the Federal Register. (copiar esta info: guides.lib.virginia.edu/administrative_decisions)
Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:
Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Ethics and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Ethics or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.
Bills by congress at Lawi when seeking specific bill text, legislative history or congressional record information from a specific congress.
State Administrative Materials and Resources
State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Ethics and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Ethics. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Ethics should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.
State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here: