Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict

Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict in United States

Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict

Entered in force: 7 August 1956

* FINAL ACT OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCE ON THE
PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN THE EVENT OF ARMED
CONFLICT (with attached resolutions);

* CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN
THE EVENT OF ARMED CONFLICT and REGULATIONS for the
execution of the said Convention; and

* PROTOCOL FOR THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN THE
EVENT OF ARMED CONFLICT

# # #

FINAL ACT
OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCE
ON THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY
IN THE EVENT OF ARMED CONFLICT.
Done at the Hague, on 14 May 1954

The Conference convened by the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization for the purpose of drawing
up and adopting

a Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event
of Armed Conflict,

Regulations for the Execution of the said Convention, and

a Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Cultural
Property in the Event of Armed Conflict was held at The Hague, on
the invitation of the Government of the Netherlands from 21 April
to 14 May, 1954, and deliberated on the basis of drafts prepared
by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization.

The Conference established the following texts:

Convention of The Hague for the Protection of Cultural Property
in the Event of Armed Conflict and Regulations for the execution
of the said Convention;

Protocol for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of
Armed Conflict.

This Convention, these Regulations and this Protocol, the texts
of which were established in the English, French, Russian and
Spanish languages, are attached to the present Act.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization will make the translation of these texts into the
other official languages of its General Conference.

The Conference further adopted three resolutions which are also
attached to the present Act.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized by their
respective Governments, have signed the present Final Act.

DONE at The Hague, this fourteenth day of May, 1954, in the
English, French, Russian and Spanish languages. The original and
the documents accompanying it shall be deposited in the archives
of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization.

R E S O L U T I O N S

RESOLUTION I

The Conference expresses the hope that the competent organs of
the United Nations should decide, in the event of military action
being taken in implementation of the Charter, to ensure
application of the provisions of the Convention by the armed
forces taking part in such action.

RESOLUTION II

The Conference expresses the hope that each of the High
Contracting Parties, on acceding to the Convention, should set
up, within the framework of its constitutional and administrative
system, a national advisory committee consisting of a small
number of distinguished persons: for example, senior officials of
archaeological services, museums, etc., a representative of the
military general staff, a representative of the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, a specialist in international law and two or
three other members whose official duties or specialized
knowledge are related to the fields covered by the Convention.

The Committee should be under the authority of the minister of
State or senior official responsible for the national service
chiefly concerned with the care of cultural property. Its chief
functions would be:

a) to advise the government concerning the measures required
for the implementation of the Convention in its legislative,
technical or military aspects, both in time of peace and
during an armed conflict;

b) to approach its government in the event of an armed
conflict or when such a conflict appears imminent, with a
view to ensuring that cultural property situated within its
own territory or within that of other countries is known to,
and respected and protected by the armed forces of the
country, in accordance with the provisions of the
Convention;

c) to arrange, in agreement with its government, for liaison
and co-operation with other similar national committees and
with any competent international authority.

RESOLUTION III

The Conference expresses the hope that the Director-General of
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization should convene, as soon as possible after the entry
into force of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural
Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, a meeting of the High
Contracting Parties.

CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY
IN THE EVENT OF ARMED CONFLICT.
Done at the Hague, on 14 May 1954

The High Contracting Parties,

Recognizing that cultural property has suffered grave damage
during recent armed conflicts and that, by reason of the
developments in the technique of warfare, it is in increasing
danger of destruction;

Being convinced that damage to cultural property belonging to any
people whatsoever means damage to the cultural heritage of all
mankind, since each people makes its contribution to the culture
of the world;

Considering that the preservation of the cultural heritage is of
great importance for all peoples of the world and that it is
important that this heritage should receive international
protection;

Guided by the principles concerning the protection of cultural
property during armed conflict, as established in the Conventions
of The Hague of 1899 and of 1907 and in the Washington Pact of 15
April, 1935;

Being of the opinion that such protection cannot be effective
unless both national and international measures have been taken
to organize it in time of peace;

Being determined to take all possible steps to protect cultural
property;

Have agreed upon the following provisions:

CHAPTER I: GENERAL PROVISIONS REGARDING PROTECTION

Article 1

DEFINITION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY

For the purposes of the present Convention, the term “cultural
property” shall cover, irrespective of origin or ownership:

(a) movable or immovable property of great importance to the
cultural heritage of every people, such as monuments of
architecture, art or history, whether religious or secular;
archaeological sites; groups of buildings which, as a whole,
are of historical or artistic interest; works of art;
manuscripts, books and other objects of artistic, historical
or archaeological interest; as well as scientific
collections and important collections of books or archives
or of reproductions of the property defined above;

(b) buildings whose main and effective purpose is to
preserve or exhibit the movable cultural property defined in
sub-paragraph (a) such as museums, large libraries and
depositories of archives, and refuges intended to shelter,
in the event of armed conflict, the movable cultural
property defined in subparagraph (a);

(c) centres containing a large amount of cultural property
as defined in subparagraphs (a) and (b), to be known as
“centres containing monuments”.

Article 2

PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY

For the purposes of the present Convention, the protection of
cultural property shall comprise the safeguarding of and respect
for such property.

Article 3

SAFEGUARDING OF CULTURAL PROPERTY

The High Contracting Parties undertake to prepare in time of
peace for the safeguarding of cultural property situated within
their own territory against the foreseeable effects of an armed
conflict, by taking such measures as they consider appropriate.

Article 4

RESPECT FOR CULTURAL PROPERTY

1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect cultural
property situated within their own territory as well as within
the territory of other High Contracting Parties by refraining
from any use of the property and its immediate surroundings or of
the appliances in use for its protection for purposes which are
likely to expose it to destruction or damage in the event of
armed convict; and by refraining from any act of hostility
directed against such property.

2. The obligations mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present
Article may be waived only in cases where military necessity
imperatively requires such a waiver.

3. The High Contracting Parties further undertake to prohibit,
prevent and, if necessary, put a stop to any form of theft,
pillage or misappropriation of, and any acts of vandalism
directed against, cultural property. They shall refrain from
requisitioning movable cultural property situated in the
territory of another High Contracting Party.

4. They shall refrain from any act directed by way of reprisals
against cultural property.

5. No High Contracting Party may evade the obligations incumbent
upon it under the present Article, in respect of another High
Contracting Party, by reason of the fact that the latter has not
applied the measures of safeguard referred to in Article 3.

Article 5

OCCUPATION

1. Any High Contracting Party in occupation of the whole or part
of the territory of another High Contracting Party shall as far
as possible support the competent national authorities of the
occupied country in safeguarding and preserving its cultural
property.

2. Should it prove necessary to take measures to preserve
cultural property situated in occupied territory and damaged by
military operations, and should the competent national
authorities be unable to take such measures, the Occupying Power
shall, as far as possible, and in close co-operation with such
authorities, take the most necessary measures of preservation.

3. Any High Contracting Party whose government is considered
their legitimate government by members of a resistance movement,
shall, if possible, draw their attention to the obligation to
comply with those provisions of the Convention dealing with
respect for cultural property.

Article 6

DISTINCTIVE MARKING OF CULTURAL PROPERTY

In accordance with the provisions of Article 16, cultural
property may bear a distinctive emblem so as to facilitate its
recognition.

Article 7

MILITARY MEASURES

1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to introduce in time of
peace into their military regulations or instructions such
provisions as may ensure observance of the present Convention,
and to foster in the members of their armed forces a spirit of
respect for the culture and cultural property of all peoples.

2. The High Contracting Parties undertake to plan or establish in
peacetime, within their armed forces, services or specialist
personnel whose purpose will be to secure respect for cultural
property and to co-operate with the civilian authorities
responsible for safeguarding it.

CHAPTER II: SPECIAL PROTECTION

Article 8

GRANTING OF SPECIAL PROTECTION

1. There may be placed under special protection a limited number
of refuges intended to shelter movable cultural property in the
event of armed conflict, of centres containing monuments and
other immovable cultural property of very great importance,
provided that they:

(a) are situated at an adequate distance from any large
industrial centre or from any important military objective
constituting a vulnerable point, such as, for example, an
aerodrome, broadcasting station, establishment engaged upon
work of national defense, a port or railway station of
relative importance or a main line of communication;

(b) are not used for military purposes.

2. A refuge for movable cultural property may also be placed
under special protection, whatever its location, if it is so
constructed that, in all probability, it will not be damaged by
bombs.
3. A centre containing monuments shall be deemed to be used for
military purposes whenever it is used for the movement of
military personnel or material, even in transit. The same shall
apply whenever activities directly connected with military
operations, the stationing of military personnel, or the
production of war material are carried on within the centre.

4. The guarding of cultural property mentioned in paragraph 1
above by armed custodians specially empowered to do so, or the
presence, in the vicinity of such cultural property, of police
forces normally responsible for the maintenance of public order
shall not be deemed to be use for military purposes.

5. If any cultural property mentioned in paragraph 1 of the
present Article is situated near an important military objective
as defined in the said paragraph, it may nevertheless be placed
under special protection if the High Contracting Party asking for
that protection undertakes, in the event of armed conflict, to
make no use of the objective and particularly, in the case of a
port, railway station or aerodrome, to divert all traffic
therefrom. In that event, such diversion shall be prepared in
time of peace.

6. Special protection is granted to cultural property by its
entry in the “International Register of Cultural Property under
Special Protection”. This entry shall only be made, in accordance
with the provisions of the present Convention and under the
conditions provided for in the Regulations for the execution of
the Convention.

Article 9

IMMUNITY OF CULTURAL PROPERTY UNDER SPECIAL PROTECTION

The High Contracting Parties undertake to ensure the immunity of
cultural property under special protection by refraining, from
the time of entry in the International Register, from any act of
hostility directed against such property and, except for the
cases provided for in paragraph 5 of Article 8, from any use of
such property or its surroundings for military purposes.

Article 10

IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

During an armed conflict, cultural property under special
protection shall be marked with the distinctive emblem described
in Article 16, and shall be open to international control as
provided for in the Regulations for the execution of the
Convention.

Article 11
WITHDRAWAL OF IMMUNITY

1. If one of the High Contracting Parties commits, in respect of
any item of cultural property under special protection, a
violation of the obligations under Article 9, the opposing Party
shall, so long as this violation persists, be released from the
obligation to ensure the immunity of the property concerned.
Nevertheless, whenever possible, the latter Party shall first
request the cessation of such violation within a reasonable time.

2. Apart from the case provided for in paragraph 1 of the present
Article, immunity shall be withdrawn from cultural property under
special protection only in exceptional cases of unavoidable
military necessity, and only for such time as that necessity
continues. Such necessity can be established only by the officer
commanding a force the equivalent of a division in size or
larger. Whenever circumstances permit, the opposing Party shall
be notified, a reasonable time in advance, of the decision to
withdraw immunity.

3. The Party withdrawing immunity shall, as soon as possible, so
inform the Commissioner-General for cultural property provided
for in the Regulations for the execution of the Convention, in
writing, stating the reasons.

CHAPTER III: TRANSPORT OF CULTURAL PROPERTY

Article 12

TRANSPORT UNDER SPECIAL PROTECTION

1. Transport exclusively engaged in the transfer of cultural
property, whether within a territory or to another territory,
may, at the request of the High Contracting Party concerned, take
place under special protection in accordance with the conditions
specified in the Regulations for the execution of the Convention.

2. Transport under special protection shall take plate under the
international supervision provided for in the aforesaid
Regulations and shall display the distinctive emblem described in
Article 16.

3. The High Contracting Parties shall refrain from any act of
hostility directed against transport under special protection.

Article 13

TRANSPORT IN URGENT CASES

1. If a High Contracting Party considers that the safety of
certain cultural property requires its transfer and that the
matter is of such urgency that the procedure laid down in Article
12 cannot be followed, especially at the beginning of an armed
conflict, the transport may display the distinctive emblem
described in Article 16, provided that an application for
immunity referred to in Article 12 has not already been made and
refused. As far as possible, notification of transfer should be
made to the opposing Parties. Nevertheless, transport conveying
cultural property to the territory of another country may not
display the distinctive emblem unless immunity has been expressly
granted to it.

2. The High Contracting Parties shall take, so far as possible,
the necessary precautions to avoid acts of hostility directed
against the transport described in paragraph 1 of the present
Article and displaying the distinctive emblem.

Article 14

IMMUNITY FROM SEIZURE, CAPTURE AND PRIZE

1. Immunity from seizure, placing in prize, or capture shall be
granted to:

(a) cultural property enjoying the protection provided for
in Article 12 or that provided for in Article 13;

(b) the means of transport exclusively engaged in the
transfer of such cultural property.

2. Nothing in the present Article shall limit the right of visit
and search.

CHAPTER IV: PERSONNEL

Article 15

PERSONNEL

As far as is consistent with the interests of security, personnel
engaged in the protection of cultural property shall, in the
interests of such property, be respected and, if they fall into
the hands of the opposing Party, shall be allowed to continue to
carry out their duties whenever the cultural property for which
they are responsible has also fallen into the hands of the
opposing Party.

CHAPTER V: THE DISTINCTIVE EMBLEM

Article 16

EMBLEM OF THE CONVENTION

1. The distinctive emblem of the Convention shall take the form
of a shield, pointed below, per saltire blue and white (a shield
consisting of a royal blue square, one of the angles of which
forms the point of the shield, and of a royal-blue triangle above
the square, the space on either side being taken up by a white
triangle).

2. The emblem shall be used alone, or repeated three times in a
triangular formation (one shield below), under the conditions
provided for in Article 17.

Article 17

USE OF THE EMBLEM

1. The distinctive emblem repeated three times may be used only
as means of identification of:

(a) immovable cultural property under special protection;

(b) the transport of cultural property under the conditions
provided for in Articles 12 and 13;

(c) improvised refuges, under the conditions provided for in
the Regulations for the execution of the Convention.

2. The distinctive emblem may be used alone only as a means of
identification of:

(a) cultural property not under special protection;

(b) the persons responsible for the duties of control in
accordance with the Regulations for the execution of the
Convention;

(c) the personnel engaged in the protection of cultural
property;

(d) the identity cards mentioned in the Regulations for the
execution of the Convention.

3. During an armed conflict, the use of the distinctive emblem in
any other cases than those mentioned in the preceding paragraphs
of the present Article, and the use for any purpose whatever of a
sign resembling the distinctive emblem, shall be forbidden.

4. The distinctive emblem may not be placed on any immovable
cultural property unless at the same time there is displayed an
authorization duly dated and signed by the competent authority of
the High Contracting Party.

CHAPTER VI: SCOPE OF APPLICATION OF THE CONVENTION
Article 18

APPLICATION OF THE CONVENTION

1. Apart from the provisions which shall take effect in time of
peace, the present Convention shall apply in the event of
declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise
between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the
state of war is not recognized by one or more of them.

2. The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or
total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party,
even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.

3. If one of the Powers in conflict is not a Party to the present
Convention, the Powers which are Parties thereto shall
nevertheless remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They
shall furthermore be bound by the Convention, in relation to the
said Power, if the latter has declared that it accepts the provi-
sions thereof and so long as it applies them.

Article 19

CONFLICTS NOT OF AN INTERNATIONAL CHARACTER

1. In the event of an armed conflict not of an international
character occurring within the territory of one of the High
Contracting Parties, each party to the conflict shall be bound to
apply, as a minimum, the provisions of the present Convention
which relate to respect for cultural property.

2. The parties to the conflict shall endeavor to bring into
force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other
provisions of the present Convention.

3. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization may offer its services to the parties to the
conflict.

4. The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect
the legal status of the parties to the conflict.

CHAPTER VII: EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION

Article 20

REGULATIONS FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION

The procedure by which the present Convention is to be applied is
defined in the Regulations for its execution, which constitute an
integral part thereof.

Article 21

PROTECTING POWERS

The present Convention and the Regulations for its execution
shall be applied with the co-operation of the Protecting Powers
responsible for safeguarding the interests of the Parties to the
conflict.

Article 22

CONCILIATION PROCEDURE

1. The Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices in all
cases where they may deem it useful in the interests of cultural
property, particularly if there is disagreement between the
Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation
of the provisions of the present Convention or the Regulations
for its execution.

2. For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at
the invitation of one Party, of the Director-General of the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,
or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict
a meeting of their representatives, and in particular of the
authorities responsible for the protection of cultural property,
if considered appropriate on suitably chosen neutral territory.
The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the
proposals for meeting made to them. The Protecting Powers shall
propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict a person
belonging to a neutral Power or a person presented by the
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization, which person shall be invited to take
part in such a meeting in the capacity of Chairman.

Article 23

ASSISTANCE OF UNESCO

1. The High Contracting Parties may call upon the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization for technical
assistance in organizing the protection of their cultural
property, or in connexion with any other problem arising out of
the application of the present Convention or the Regulations for
its execution. The Organization shall accord such assistance
within the limits fixed by its programme and by its resources.

2. The Organization is authorized to make, on its own initiative,
proposals on this matter to the High Contracting Parties.

Article 24
SPECIAL AGREEMENTS

1. The High Contracting Parties may conclude special agreements
for all matters concerning which they deem it suitable to make
separate provision.

2. No special agreement may be concluded which would diminish the
protection afforded by this present Convention to cultural
property and to the personnel engaged in its protection.

Article 25

DISSEMINATION OF THE CONVENTION

The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in
time of armed conflict, to disseminate the text of the present
Convention and the Regulations for its execution as widely as
possible in their respective countries. They undertake, in
particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of
military and, if possible, civilian training, so that its
principles are made known to the whole population, especially the
armed forces and personnel engaged in the protection of cultural
property.

Article 26

TRANSLATIONS, REPORTS

1. The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another,
through the Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization, the official translations
of the present Convention and of the Regulations for its
execution.

2. Furthermore, at least once every four years, they shall
forward to the Director-General a report giving whatever
information they think suitable concerning any measures being
taken, prepared or contemplated by their respective
administrations in fulfillment of the present Convention and of
the Regulations for its execution.

Article 27

MEETINGS

1. The Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization may, with the approval of
the Executive Board, convene meetings of representatives of the
High Contracting Parties. He must convene such a meeting if at
least one-fifth of the High Contracting Parties so request.

2. Without prejudice to any other functions which have been
conferred on it by the present Convention or the Regulations for
its execution, the purpose of the meeting will be to study
problems concerning the application of the Convention and of the
Regulations for its execution, and to formulate recommendations
in respect thereof.

3. The meeting may further undertake a revision of the Convention
or the Regulations for its execution if the majority of the High
Contracting Parties are represented, and in accordance with the
provisions of Article 39.

Article 28

SANCTIONS

The High Contracting Parties undertake to take, within the
framework of their ordinary criminal jurisdiction, all necessary
steps to prosecute and impose penal or disciplinary sanctions
upon those persons, of whatever nationality, who commit or order
to be committed a breach of the present Convention.

FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 29

LANGUAGES

1. The present Convention is drawn up in English, French, Russian
and Spanish, the four texts being equally authoritative.

2. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization shall arrange for translations of the Convention
into the other official languages of its General Conference.

Article 30

SIGNATURE

The present Convention shall bear the date of 14 May, 1954 and,
until the date of 31 December, 1954, shall remain open for
signature by all States invited to the Conference which met at
The Hague from 21 April, 1954 to 14 May, 1954.

Article 31

RATIFICATION

1. The present Convention shall be subject to ratification by
signatory States in accordance with their respective
constitutional procedures.

2. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization.

Article 32

ACCESSION

From the date of its entry into force, the present Convention
shall be open for accession by all States mentioned in Article 30
which have not signed it, as well as any other State invited to
accede by the Executive Board of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization. Accession shall be effected
by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization.

Article 33

ENTRY INTO FORCE

1. The present Convention shall enter into force three months
after five instruments of ratification have been deposited.

2. Thereafter, it shall enter into force, for each High
Contracting Party, three months after the deposit of its
instrument of ratification or accession.

3. The situations referred to in Articles 18 and 19 shall give
immediate effect to ratifications or accessions deposited by the
Parties to the conflict either before or after the beginning of
hostilities or occupation. In such cases the Director-General of
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization shall transmit the communications referred to in
Article 38 by the speediest method.

Article 34

EFFECTIVE APPLICATION

1. Each State Party to the Convention on the date of its entry
into force shall take all necessary measures to ensure its
effective application within a period of six months after such
entry into force.

2. This period shall be six months from the date of deposit of
the instruments of ratification or accession for any State which
deposits its instrument of ratification or accession after the
date of the entry into force of the Convention.

Article 35

TERRITORIAL EXTENSION OF THE CONVENTION

Any High Contracting Party may, at the time of ratification or
accession, or at any time thereafter, declare by notification
addressed to the Director-General of the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, that the
present Convention shall extend to all or any of the territories
for whose international relations it is responsible. The said
notification shall take effect three months after the date of its
receipt.

Article 36

RELATION TO PREVIOUS CONVENTIONS

1. In the relations between Powers which are bound by the
Conventions of The Hague concerning the Laws and Customs of War
on Land (IV) and concerning Naval Bombardment in Time of War
(IX), whether those of 29 July, 1899 or those of 18 October,
1907, and which are Parties to the present Convention, this last
Convention shall be supplementary to the aforementioned
Convention (IX) and to the Regulations annexed to the
aforementioned Convention (IV) and shall substitute for the
emblem described in Article 5 of the aforementioned Convention
(IX) the emblem described in Article 16 of the present
Convention, in cases in which the present Convention and the
Regulations for its execution provide for the use of this
distinctive emblem.

2. In the relations between Powers which are bound by the
Washington Pact of 15 April, 1935 for the Protection of Artistic
and Scientific Institutions and of Historic Monuments (Roerich
Pact) and which are Parties to the present Convention, the latter
Convention shall be supplementary to the Roerich Pact and shall
substitute for the distinguishing flag described in Article III
of the Pact the emblem defined in Article 16 of the present
Convention, in cases in which the present Convention and the
Regulations for its execution provide for the use of this
distinctive emblem.

Article 37

DENUNCIATION

1. Each High Contracting Party may denounce the present
Convention, on its own behalf, or on behalf of any territory for
whose international relations it is responsible.

2. The denunciation shall be notified by an instrument in
writing, deposited with the Director-General of the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

3. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the receipt
of the instrument of denunciation. However, if, on the expiry of
this period, the denouncing Party is involved in an armed
conflict, the denunciation shall not take effect until the end of
hostilities, or until the operations of repatriating cultural
property are completed, whichever is the later.

Article 38

NOTIFICATIONS

The Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization shall inform the States
referred to in Articles 30 and 32, as well as the United Nations,
of the deposit of all the instruments of ratification, accession
or acceptance provided for in Articles 31, 32 and 39 and of the
notifications and denunciations provided for respectively in
Articles 35, 37 and 39.

Article 39

REVISION OF THE CONVENTION AND OF THE REGULATIONS
FOR ITS EXECUTION

1. Any High Contracting Party may propose amendments to the
present Convention or the Regulations for its execution. The text
of any proposed amendment shall be communicated to the
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization who shall transmit it to each High
Contracting Party with the request that such Party reply within
four months stating whether it:
(a) desires that a Conference be convened to consider the
proposed amendment;
(b) favours the acceptance of the proposed amendment without
a Conference; or
(c) favours the rejection of the proposed amendment without
a Conference.

2. The Director-General shall transmit the replies, received
under paragraph 1 of the present Article, to all High Contracting
Parties.

3. If all the High Contracting Parties which have, within the
prescribed time-limit, stated their views to the Director-General
of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization, pursuant to paragraph 1 (b) of this Article, inform
him that they favour acceptance of the amendment without a
Conference, notification of their decision shall be made by the
Director-General in accordance with Article 38. The amendment
shall become effective for all the High Contracting Parties on
the expiry of ninety days from the date of such notification.

4. The Director-General shall convene a Conference of the High
Contracting Parties to consider the proposed amendment if
requested to do so by more than one-third of the High Contracting
Parties.

5. Amendments to the Convention or to the Regulations for its
execution, dealt with under the provisions of the preceding
paragraph, shall enter into force only after they have been
unanimously adopted by the High Contracting Parties represented
at the Conference and accepted by each of the High Contracting
Parties.

6. Acceptance by the High Contracting Parties of amendments to
the Convention or to the Regulations for its execution, which
have been adopted by the Conference mentioned in paragraphs 4 and
5, shall be effected by the deposit of a formal instrument with
the Director-General of the United Nations Edu-
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

7. After the entry into force of amendments to the present
Convention or to the Regulations for its execution, only the text
of the Convention or of the Regulations for its execution thus
amended shall remain open for ratification or accession.

Article 40

REGISTRATION

In accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United
Nations, the present Convention shall be registered with the
Secretariat of the United Nations at the request of the
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization.

IN FAITH WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed
the present Convention.

DONE at The Hague, this fourteenth day of May, 1954, in a single
copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and
certified true copies of which shall be delivered to all the
States referred to in Articles 30 and 32 as well as to the United
Nations.

REGULATIONS FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION FOR THE
PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN THE EVENT OF ARMED CONFLICT

CHAPTER I: CONTROL

Article 1

INTERNATIONAL LIST OF PERSONS

On the entry into force of the Convention, the Director-General
of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization shall compile an international list consisting of
all persons nominated by the High Contracting Parties as
qualified to carry out the functions of Commissioner-General for
Cultural Property. On the initiative of the Director-General of
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization, this list shall be periodically revised on the
basis of requests formulated by the High Contracting Parties.

Article 2

ORGANIZATION OF CONTROL

As soon as any High Contracting Party is engaged in an armed
conflict to which Article 18 of the Convention applies:

(a) It shall appoint a representative for cultural property
situated in its territory; if it is in occupation of another
territory, it shall appoint a special representative for cultural
property situated in that territory;
(b) The Protecting Power acting for each of the Parties in
conflict with such High Contracting Party shall appoint delegates
accredited to the latter in conformity with Article 3 below;
(c) A Commissioner-General for Cultural Property shall be
appointed to such High Contracting Party in accordance with
Article 4.

Article 3

APPOINTMENT OF DELEGATES OF PROTECTING POWERS

The Protecting Power shall appoint its delegates from among the
members of its diplomatic or consular staff or, with the approval
of the Party to which they will be accredited, from among other
persons.

Article 4

APPOINTMENT OF COMMISSIONER-GENERAL

1. The Commissioner-General for Cultural Property shall be chosen
from the international list of persons by joint agreement between
the Party to which he will be accredited and the Protecting
Powers acting on behalf of the opposing Parties.

2. Should the Parties fail to reach agreement within three weeks
from the beginning of their discussions on this point, they shall
request the President of the International Court of Justice to
appoint the Commissioner-General, who shall not take up his
duties until the Party to which he is accredited has approved his
appointment.

Article 5

FUNCTIONS OF DELEGATES

The delegates of the Protecting Powers shall take note of
violations of the Convention, investigate, with the approval of
the Party to which they are accredited, the circumstances in
which they have occurred, make representations locally to secure
their cessation and, if necessary, notify the CommissionerGeneral
of such violations. They shall keep him informed of their
activities.

Article 6

FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSIONER-GENERAL

1. The Commissioner-General for Cultural Property shall deal with
all matters referred to him in connexion with the application of
the Convention, in conjunction with the representative of the
Party to which he is accredited and with the delegates concerned.

2. He shall have powers of decision and appointment in the cases
specified in the present Regulations.

3. With the agreement of the Party to which he is accredited, he
shall
have the right to order an investigation or to conduct it
himself.

4. He shall make any representations to the Parties to the
conflict or to their Protecting Powers which he deems useful for
the application of the Convention.

5. He shall draw up such reports as may be necessary on the
application of the Convention and communicate them to the Parties
concerned and to their Protecting Powers. He shall send copies to
the Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization, who may make use only of
their technical contents.

6. If there is no Protecting Power, the Commissioner-General
shall exercise the functions of the Protecting Power as laid down
in Articles 21 and 22 of the Convention.

Article 7

INSPECTORS AND EXPERTS

1. Whenever the Commissioner-General for Cultural Property
considers it necessary, either at the request of the delegates
concerned or after consultation with them, he shall propose, for
the approval of the Party to which he is accredited, an inspector
of cultural property to be charged with a specific mission. An
inspector shall be responsible only to the Commissioner-General.

2. The Commissioner-General, delegates and inspectors may have
recourse to the services of experts, who will also be proposed
for the approval of the Party mentioned in the preceding
paragraph.

Article 8

DISCHARGE OF THE MISSION OF CONTROL

The Commissioners-General for Cultural Property, delegates of the
Protecting Powers, inspectors and experts shall in no case exceed
their mandates. In particular, they shall take account of the
security needs of the High Contracting Party to which they are
accredited and shall in all circumstances act in accordance with
the requirements of the military situation as communicated to
them by that High Contracting Party.

Article 9

SUBSTITUTES FOR PROTECTING POWERS

If a Party to the conflict does not benefit or ceases to benefit
from the activities of a Protecting Power, a neutral State may be
asked to undertake those functions of a Protecting Power which
concern the appointment of a Commissioner-General for Cultural
Property in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 4
above. The Commissioner-General thus appointed shall, if need be,
entrust to inspectors the functions of delegates of Protecting
Powers as specified in the present Regulations.

Article 10

EXPENSES

The remuneration and expenses of the Commissioner-General for
Cultural Property, inspectors and experts shall be met by the
Party to which they are accredited. Remuneration and expenses of
delegates of the Protecting Powers shall be subject to agreement
between those Powers and the States whose interests they are
safeguarding.

CHAPTER II: SPECIAL PROTECTION

Article 11

IMPROVISED REFUGES

1. If, during an armed conflict, any High Contracting Party is
induced by unforeseen circumstances to set up an improvised
refuge and desires that it should be placed under special
protection, it shall communicate this fact forthwith to the
Commissioner-General accredited to that Party.

2. If the Commissioner-General considers that such a measure is
justified by the circumstances and by the importance of the
cultural property sheltered in this improvised refuge, he may
authorize the High Contracting Party to display on such refuge
the distinctive emblem defined in Article 16 of the Convention.
He shall communicate his decision without delay to the delegates
of the Protecting Powers who are concerned, each of whom may,
within a timelimit of 30 days, order the immediate withdrawal of
the emblem.

3. As soon as such delegates have signified their agreement or if
the timelimit of 30 days has passed without any of the delegates
concerned having made an objection, and if, in the view of the
Commissioner-General, the refuge fulfils the conditions laid down
in Article 8 of the Convention, the CommissionerGeneral shall
request the Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization to enter the refuge in the
Register of Cultural Property under Special Protection.

Article 12

INTERNATIONAL REGISTER OF CULTURAL PROPERTY UNDER SPECIAL
PROTECTION

1. An “International Register of Cultural Property under Special
Protection” shall be prepared.

2. The Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization shall maintain this
Register. He shall furnish copies to the Secretary-General of the
United Nations and to the High Contracting Parties.

3. The Register shall be divided into sections, each in the name
of a High Contracting Party. Each section shall be sub-divided
into three paragraphs, headed: Refuges, Centres containing
Monuments, Other Immovable Cultural Property. The
Director-General shall determine what details each section shall
contain.

Article 13

REQUESTS FOR REGISTRATION

1. Any High Contracting Party may submit to the Director-General
of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization an application for the entry in the Register of
certain refuges, centres containing monuments or other immovable
cultural property situated within its territory. Such application
shall contain a description of the location of such property and
shall certify that the property complies with the provisions of
Article 8 of the Convention.

2. In the event of occupation, the Occupying Power shall be
competent to make such application.

3. The Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization shall, without delay, send
copies of applications for registration to each of the High
Contracting Parties.

Article 14

OBJECTIONS

1. Any High Contracting Party may, by letter addressed to the
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization, lodge an objection to the registration
of cultural property. This letter must be received by him within
four months of the day on which he sent a copy of the application
for registration.

2. Such objection shall state the reasons giving rise to it, the
only valid grounds being that:

(a) the property is not cultural property;
(b) the property does not comply with the conditions
mentioned in Article 8 of the Convention.

3. The Director-General shall send a copy of the letter of
objection to the High Contracting Parties without delay. He
shall, if necessary, seek the advice of the International
Committee on Monuments, Artistic and Historical Sites and
Archaeological Excavations and also, if he thinks fit, of any
other competent organization or person.

4. The Director-General, or the High Contracting Party requesting
registration, may make whatever representations they deem
necessary to the High Contracting Parties which lodged the
objection, with a view to causing the objection to be withdrawn.

5. If a High Contracting Party which has made an application for
registration in time of peace becomes involved in an armed
conflict before the entry has been made, the cultural property
concerned shall at once be provisionally entered in the Register,
by the Director-General, pending the confirmation, withdrawal or
cancellation of any objection that may be, or may have been,
made.

6. If, within a period of six months from the date of receipt of
the letter of objection, the Director-General has not received
from the High Contracting Party lodging the objection a
communication stating that it has been withdrawn, the High
Contracting Party applying for registration may request
arbitration in accordance with the procedure in the following
paragraph.

7. The request for arbitration shall not be made more than one
year after the date of receipt by the Director-General of the
letter of objection. Each of the two Parties to the dispute shall
appoint an arbitrator. When more than one objection has been
lodged against an application for registration, the High
Contracting Parties which have lodged the objections shall, by
common consent, appoint a single arbitrator. These two
arbitrators shall select a chief arbitrator from the
international list mentioned in Article 1 of the present
Regulations. If such arbitrators cannot agree upon their choice,
they shall ask the President of the International Court of
Justice to appoint a chief arbitrator who need not necesarily be
chosen from the international list. The arbitral tribunal thus
constituted shall fix its own procedure. There shall be no appeal
from its decisions.

8. Each of the High Contracting Parties may declare, whenever a
dispute to which it is a Party arises, that it does not wish to
apply the arbitration procedure provided for in the preceding
paragraph. In such cases, the objection to an application for
registration shall be submitted by the Director-General to the
High Contracting Parties. The objection will be confirmed only if
the High Contracting Parties so decide by a two-third majority of
the High Contracting Parties voting. The vote shall be taken by
correspondence, unless the Director-General of the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization deems it
essential to convene a meeting under the powers conferred upon
him by Article 27 of the Convention. If the Director-General
decides to proceed with the vote by correspondence, he shall
invite the High Contracting Parties to transmit their votes by
sealed letter within six months from the day on which they were
invited to do so.

Article 15

REGISTRATION

1. The Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization shall cause to be entered in
the Register, under a serial number, each item of property for
which application for registration is made, provided that he has
not received an objection within the time-limit prescribed in
paragraph 1 of Article 14.

2. If an objection has been lodged, and without prejudice to the
provision of paragraph 5 of Article 14, the Director-General
shall enter property in the Register only if the objection has
been withdrawn or has failed to be confirmed following the
procedures laid down in either paragraph 7 or paragraph 8 of
Article 14.

3. Whenever paragraph 3 of Article 11 applies, the
Director-General shall enter property in the Register if so
requested by the Commissioner-General for
Cultural Property.

4. The Director-General shall send without delay to the
Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the High Contracting
Parties, and, at the request of the Party applying for
registration, to all other States referred to in Articles 30 and
32 of the Convention, a certified copy of each entry in the
Register. Entries shall become effective thirty days after
despatch of such copies.

Article 16

CANCELLATION

1. The Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization shall cause the registration
of any property to be cancelled:
(a) at the request of the High Contracting Party within
whose territory the cultural property is situated;
(b) if the High Contracting Party which requested
registration has denounced the Convention, and when that
denunciation has taken effect;
(c) in the special case provided for in Article 14,
paragraph 5, when an objection has been confirmed following the
procedures mentioned either in paragraph 7 or in paragraph 8 of
Article 14.

2. The Director-General shall send without delay, to the
Secretary-General of the United Nations and to all States which
received a copy of the entry in the Register, a certified copy of
its cancellation. Cancellation shall take effect thirty days
after the despatch of such copies.

CHAPTER III: TRANSPORT OF CULTURAL PROPERTY

Article 17

PROCEDURE TO OBTAIN IMMUNITY
1. The request mentioned in paragraph 1 of Article 12 of the
Convention shall be addressed to the Commissioner-General for
Cultural Property. It shall mention the reasons on which it is
based and specify the approximate number and the importance of
the objects to be transferred, their present location, the
location now envisaged, the means of transport to be used, the
route to be followed, the date proposed for the transfer, and any
other relevant information.

2. If the Commissioner-General, after taking such opinions as he
deems fit, considers that such transfer is justified, he shall
consult those delegates of the Protecting Powers who are
concerned, on the measures proposed for carrying it out.
Following such consultation, he shall notify the Parties to the
conflict concerned of the transfer, including in such
notification all useful information.

3. The Commissioner-General shall appoint one or more inspectors,
who shall satisfy themselves that only the property stated in the
request is to be transferred and that the transport is to be by
the approved methods and bears the distinctive emblem. The
inspector or inspectors shall accompany the property to its
destination.

Article 18

TRANSPORT ABROAD

Where the transfer under special protection is to the territory
of another country, it shall be governed not only by Article 12
of the Convention and by Article 17 of the present Regulations,
but by the following further provisions:
(a) while the cultural property remains on the territory of
another State, that State shall be its depositary and shall
extend to it as great a measure of care as that which it bestows
upon its own cultural property of comparable importance;
(b) the depositary State shall return the property only on
the cessation of the conflict; such return shall be effected
within six months from the date on which it was requested;
(c) during the various transfer operations, and while it
remains on the territory of another State, the cultural property
shall be exempt from confiscation and may not be disposed of
either by the depositor or by the depositary. Nevertheless, when
the safety of the property requires it, the depositary may, with
the assent of the depositor, have the property transported to the
territory of a third country, under the conditions laid down in
the present article;
(d) the request for special protection shall indicate that
the State to whose territory the property is to be transferred
accepts the provisions of the present Article.

Article 19

OCCUPIED TERRITORY

Whenever a High Contracting Party occupying territory of another
High Contracting Party transfers cultural property to a refuge
situated elsewhere in that territory, without being able to
follow the procedure provided for in Article 17 of the
Regulations, the transfer in question shall not be regarded as
misappropriation within the meaning of Article 4 of the
Convention, provided that the Commissioner-General for Cultural
Property certifies in writing, after having consulted the usual
custodians, that such transfer was rendered necessary by
circumstances.

CHAPTER IV: THE DISTINCTIVE EMBLEM

Article 20

AFFIXING OF THE EMBLEM

1. The placing of the distinctive emblem and its degree of
visibility shall be left to the discretion of the competent
authorities of each High Contracting Party. It may be displayed
on flags or armlets; it may be painted on an object or
represented in any other appropriate form.

2. However, without prejudice to any possible fuller markings,
the emblem shall, in the event of armed conflict and in the cases
mentioned in Articles 12 and 13 of the Convention, be placed on
the vehicles of transport so as to be clearly visible in daylight
from the air as well as from the ground.

The emblem shall be visible from the ground:
(a) at regular intervals sufficient to indicate clearly the
perimeter of a centre containing monuments under special
protection;
(b) at the entrance to other immovable cultural property
under special protection.

Article 21

IDENTIFICATION OF PERSONS

1. The persons mentioned in Article 17, paragraph 2 (b) and (c)
of the Convention may wear an armlet bearing the distinctive
emblem, issued and stamped by the competent authorities.

2. Such persons shall carry a special identity card bearing the
distinctive emblem. This card shall mention at least the surname
and first names, the date of birth, the title or rank, and the
function of the holder. The card shall bear the photograph of the
holder as well as his signature or his fingerprints, or both. It
shall bear the embossed stamp of the competent authorities.
3. Each High Contracting Party shall make out its own type of
identity card, guided by the model annexed, by way of example, to
the present Regulations. The High Contracting Parties shall
transmit to each other a specimen of the model they are using.
Identity cards shall be made out, if possible, at least in
duplicate, one copy being kept by the issuing Power.

4. The said persons may not, without legitimate reason, be
deprived of their identity card or of the right to wear the
armlet.

PROTOCOL
————

The High Contracting Parties are agreed as follows:

I

1. Each High Contracting Party undertakes to prevent the
exportation, from a territory occupied by it during an armed
conflict, of cultural property as defined in Article 1 of the
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event
of Armed Conflict, signed at The Hague on 14 May, 1954.

2. Each High Contracting Party undertakes to take into its
custody cultural property imported into its territory either
directly or indirectly from any occupied territory. This shall
either be effected automatically upon the importation of the
property or, failing this, at the request of the authorities of
that territory.

3. Each High Contracting Party undertakes to return, at the close
of hostilities, to the competent authorities of the territory
previously occupied, cultural property which is in its territory,
if such property has been exported in contravention of the
principle laid down in the first paragraph. Such property shall
never be retained as war reparations.

4. The High Contracting Party whose obligation it was to prevent
the exportation of cultural property from the territory occupied
by it, shall pay an indemnity to the holders in good faith of any
cultural property which has to be returned in accordance with the
preceding paragraph.

II

5. Cultural property coming from the territory of a High
Contracting Party and deposited by it in the territory of another
High Contracting Party for the purpose of protecting such
property against the dangers of an armed conflict, shall be
returned by the latter, at the end of hostilities, to the
competent authorities of the territory from which it came.

III

6. The present Protocol shall bear the date of 14 May, 1954 and,
until the date of 31 December, 1954, shall remain open for
signature by all States invited to the Conference which met at
The Hague from 21 April, 1954 to 14 May, 1954.

7. (a) The present Protocol shall be subject to ratification by
signatory States in accordance with their respective
constitutional procedures.
(b) The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with
the Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization.

8. From the date of its entry into force, the present Protocol
shall be open for accession by all States mentioned in paragraph
6 which have not signed it as well as any other State invited to
accede by the Executive Board of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization. Accession shall be effected
by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization.

9. The States referred to in paragraphs 6 and 8 may declare, at
the time of signature, ratification or accession, that they will
not be bound by the provisions of Section I or by those of
Section II of the present Protocol.

10. (a) The present Protocol shall enter into force three months
after five instruments of ratification have been deposited.
(b) Thereafter, it shall enter into force, for each High
Contracting Party, three months after the deposit of its
instrument of ratification or accession.
(c) The situations referred to in Articles 18 and 19 of the
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event
of Armed Conflict, signed at The Hague on 14 May, 1954, shall
give immediate effect to ratifications and accessions deposited
by the Parties to the conflict either before or after the
beginning of hostilities or occupation. In such cases, the
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization shall transmit the communications
referred to in paragraph 14 by the speediest method.

11. (a) Each State Party to the Protocol on the date of its entry
into force shall take all necessary measures to ensure its
effective application within a period of six months after such
entry into force.
(b) This period shall be six months from the date of deposit
of the instruments of ratification or accession for any State
which deposits its instrument of ratification or accession after
the date of the entry into force of the Protocol.
12. Any High Contracting Party may, at the time of ratification
or accession, or at any time thereafter, declare by notification
addressed to the Director-General of the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, that the
present Protocol shall extend to all or any of the territories
for whose international relations it is responsible. The said
notification shall take effect three months after the date of its
receipt.

13. (a) Each High Contracting Party may denounce the present
Protocol, on its own behalf, or on behalf of any territory for
whose international relations it is responsible.
(b) The denunciation shall be notified by an instrument in
writing, deposited with the Director-General of the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
(c) The denunciation shall take effect one year after
receipt of the instrument of denunciation. However, if, on the
expiry of this period, the denouncing Party is involved in an
armed conflict, the denunciation shall not take effect until the
end of hostilities, or until the operations of repatriating
cultural property are completed, whichever is the later.

14. The Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization shall inform the States
referred to in paragraphs 6 and 8, as well as the United Nations,
of the deposit of all the instruments of ratification, accession
or acceptance provided for in paragraphs 7, 8 and 15 and the
notifications and denunciations provided for respectively in
paragraphs 12 and 13.

15. (a) The present Protocol may be revised if revision is
requested by more than one-third of the High Contracting Parties.
(b) The Director-General of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization shall convene a Conference
for this purpose.
(c) Amendments to the present Protocol shall enter into
force only after they have been unanimously adopted by the High
Contracting Parties represented at the Conference and accepted by
each of the High Contracting Parties.
(d) Acceptance by the High Contracting Parties of amendments
to the present Protocol, which have been adopted by the
Conference mentioned in subparagraphs (b) and (c), shall be
effected by the deposit of a formal instrument with the
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization.
(e) After the entry into force of amendments to the present
Protocol, only the text of the said Protocol thus amended shall
remain open for ratification or accession.

In accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United
Nations, the present Protocol shall be registered with the
Secretariat of the United Nations at the request of the
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization.
IN FAITH WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed
the present Protocol.

DONE at The Hague, this fourteenth day of May, 1954, in English,
French, Russian and Spanish, the four texts being equally
authoritative, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the
archives of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization, and certified true copies of which shall
be delivered to all the States referred to in paragraphs 6 and 8
as well as to the United Nations.

———————–
*[As of January 1, 1990, the Convention had been ratified by 71
nations, and the Protocol (P) by 60: Albania (P), Austria (P),
Belgium (P), Brazil (P), Bulgaria* (P), Burma (P), Byelorussian
SSR* (P), Cameroon (P), Cuba (P), Cyprus (P), Czechoslovakia*
(P), Dominican Rep., Ecuador (P), Egypt (P), France* (P), Gabon
(P), GDR* (P), GFR* (P), Ghana (P), Greece (P), Guinea (P), Holy
See (P), Hungary (P), India* (P), Indonesia (P), Iran (P), Iraq
(P), Israel (P), Italy* (P), Ivory Coast, Jordan (P), Kampuchea
(P), Kuwait (P), Lebanon (P), Libya (P), Lichtenstein (P),
Luxembourg (P), Madagascar* (P), Malaysia (P), Mali (P), Mexico*
(P), Monoco (P), Mongolia, Morocco (P), Netherlands* (P),
Nicaragua (P), Niger (P), Nigeria (P), Norway** (P), Oman,
Pakistan (P), Panama, Poland* (P), Qatar, Romania* (P), San
Marino* (P), Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sudan*, Switzerland (P), Syria
(P), Tanzania, Thailand (P), Tunisia (P), Turkey (P), Ukranian
SSR (P), USSR* (P), Upper Volta, Yemen (Aden) (P), Yugoslavia
(P), Zaire (P).
(*One or more reservations to convention.)

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