Bluebook

Bluebook in the United States

Main Contents

  • B1, R1 in the Bluebook deals with:  Types of Legal Documents
  • B2, R2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Typeface Standards
  • B1, R1 in the Bluebook deals with:  In-Text Citations
  • B1.2, R1.2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Signals
  • B8, R8 in the Bluebook deals with:  Capitalization Rules
  • B1.2, R1.2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Signals for Supporting Authority
  • B1.2, R1.2(b) in the Bluebook deals with:  Signals for Comparison
  • B1.2, R1.2(c) in the Bluebook deals with:  Signals for Contradictory Authority
  • B1.2, R1.2(d) in the Bluebook deals with:  Signals for Background Material
  • B1.2, R1.4 in the Bluebook deals with:  Order of Authorities Within Each Signal / Strength of Authority
  • B10, R10 in the Bluebook deals with: CASES
  • B10.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  Full citation
  • B10.1.3, R10.4, R10.5 in the Bluebook deals with:  Court & Year
  • B10.1.5, R10.6.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  Weight of Authority and Explanatory Parenthetical
  • B10.1.6, R10.7 in the Bluebook deals with:  History of the Case
  • B10.2, R10.9 in the Bluebook deals with:  Short Form Citation for Cases
  • R12, R13, R14 in the Bluebook deals with:  STATUTES, RULES, REGULATIONS, AND OTHER LEGISLATIVE & ADMINISTRATIVE MATERIALS
  • B12.1.1, R12 in the Bluebook deals with:  Federal Statutes
  • B12.1.2, R12 in the Bluebook deals with:  State Statutes
  • B12.1.3, R12.9.3, R12.9.4 in the Bluebook deals with:  Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Restatements, and Uniform Acts
  • B14, R14 in the Bluebook deals with:  Administrative Rules and Regulations
  • B12.1.4, R12.9.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  Federal Taxation Materials
  • B13, R13 in the Bluebook deals with:  Legislative Materials
  • R13.8 in the Bluebook deals with:  Short Form Citation of Legislative and Administrative Materials
  • B11, R11 in the Bluebook deals with:  Sources and Authorities: Constitutions
  • R10.8.3 in the Bluebook deals with: COURT & LITIGATION DOCUMENTS
  • R10.8.3 in the Bluebook deals with:  Citing Court or Litigation Documents from Your Case
  • R10.8.3 in the Bluebook deals with:  Citing Court or Litigation Documents from Another Case
  • B4, R4 in the Bluebook deals with:  Short Form Citation for Court Documents
  • B8, R8 in the Bluebook deals with:  Capitalization Within the Text of Court Documents and Legal Memoranda
  • B15, R15 in the Bluebook deals with: BOOKS & NON-PERIODICALS
  • B15.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  Full Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals
  • B15.2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Short Form Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals
  • R16 in the Bluebook deals with:  JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, & NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
  • B16.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  Full Citation for Journals, Magazines & Newspaper Articles
  • B16.2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Short Form Citation for Journals, Magazines & Newspaper Articles
  • B18, R18 in the Bluebook deals with: INTERNET SOURCES
  • R18.2.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  General Principles for Internet Sources
  • B18.1.1, R18.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  Basic Formula for Internet Sources
  • B18.2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Short Form Citations for Internet Sources
  • R12.8 in the Bluebook deals with:  EXPLANATORY PARENTHETICALS
  • B1.3 in the Bluebook deals with:  General Principles for Explanatory Parentheticals
  • R1.5(b) in the Bluebook deals with:  Order of parentheticals
  • B5, R5 in the Bluebook deals with:  QUOTATIONS
  • B5.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  General Principles for Quotations
  • R5.2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Alterations of Quotations
  • R5.3 in the Bluebook deals with:  Omissions in Quotations
  • B5.2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Special Rules for Block Quotations
  • in the Bluebook deals with:  TABLES
  • T1 in the Bluebook deals with: Federal Jurisdictions
  • T1.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials
  • T1.2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Federal Administrative and Executive Materials
  • T1.3 in the Bluebook deals with:  U.S. States and Other Jurisdictions
  • T2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Table of Citation Guides
  • T3 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Intergovernmental Organizations
  • T3.1, T3.2 in the Bluebook deals with: United Nations and League of Nations
  • T3.3, T3.4, T3.5 in the Bluebook deals with: Europe
  • T3.6, T3.7, T3.8 in the Bluebook deals with: Inter-American and International Tribunal
  • T3.9 in the Bluebook deals with: Other Intergovernmental Organizations
  • T4 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Treaty Sources
  • T5 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Arbitral Reporters
  • T6 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Case Names In Citations
  • T7 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Court Names
  • T8 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Explanatory Phrases
  • T9 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Legislative Documents
  • T10 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Geographical Terms
  • T10.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  U.S. States, Cities and Territories
  • T10.2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Australian States and Canadian Provinces and Territories
  • T10.3 in the Bluebook deals with:  Countries and Regions
  • T11 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Titles of Judges and Officials
  • T12 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Month Names
  • T13 in the Bluebook deals with: Required Abbreviations for Periodical Names
  • T13.1 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Institutions
  • T13.2 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Common Words Used In Periodical Names
  • T14 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Publishing Terms
  • T15 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Services
  • T15 in the Bluebook deals with: Service Publisher Names
  • T15 in the Bluebook deals with: Service Abbreviations
  • T16 in the Bluebook deals with:  Required Abbreviations for Document Subdivisions

Bluebook: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Bluebook. This part provides references, in relation to Bluebook, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Bluebook by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Bluebook and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Bluebook or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Bluebook and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Bluebook. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Bluebook should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Bluebook when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

*This resource guide is updated frequently. However, if you notice something is wrong or not working, or any resources that should be added, please notify us in any of the "Leave a Comment" area.

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