Assessment in the United States

Assessment Definition

Determining the value of a man’s property or occupation for the purpose of levying a tax. Determining the share of a tax to be paid by each individual. Laying a tax. Adjusting the shares of a contribution by several towards a common beneficial object, according to the benefit received. The term is used in this latter sense in New York, distinguishing some kinds of local taxation, whereby a peculiar benefit arises to the parties, from general taxation. 11 Johns. (N. Y.) 77; 3 Wend. (N. Y.) 263; 4 Hill (N. Y.) 76; 4 N. Y. 419. Of Damages. Fixing the amount of damages to which the prevailing party in a suit is entitled. It may be done by the court through its proper officer, the clerk or prothonotary, where the assessment is a mere matter of calculation, but must be by a jury in other cases. See Damages. In Insurance. An apportionment made in general average upon the various articles and interests at risk, according to their value at the time and place of being in safety, for contribution for damage and sacrifices purposely made, and expenses incurred for escape from impending common peril. 2 Phil. Ins. c. 25.


This definition of Assessment Is based on the The Cyclopedic Law Dictionary . This definition needs to be proofread.

Practical Information

Note: Some of this information was last updated in 1982

A tax levied upon property within a designated area to provide funds for local improvements, such as grading or widening streets, construction of sewers, and erection of bridges. Assessments are generally payable in yearly installments. See also tax lien (in U.S. law).

(Revised by Ann De Vries)

What is Assessment?

For a meaning of it, read Assessment in the Legal Dictionary here. Browse and search more U.S. and international free legal definitions and legal terms related to Assessment.

Assessment in Foreign Legal Encyclopedias

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Assessment Assessment in the World Legal Encyclopedia.
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Concept in the American Encyclopedia of Law for Assessment

The legal dictionaries about concepts like Assessment included on the Encyclopedia ensure that words are understood in their proper context:

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Assessment in the Dictionaries Assessment in the International Dictionaries
Assessment in the Dictionaries Assessment in the American Dictionary The URI of Assessment (more about URIs)

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See Also

  • Legal Topics.
  • Environmental Assessment
  • 1992 National Assessment Of Chapter 1 Act
  • FAA Civil Penalty Administrative Assessment Act Of 1992
  • National Contaminated Sediment Assessment And Management Act
  • Animal Disease Risk Assessment, Prevention, And Control Act Of 2001
  • Railroad Assessment Act
  • Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context
  • Driftnet Impact Monitoring, Assessment, And Control Act Of 1987

Further Reading (Books)

“Black, Paul, and Wiliam, Dylan. 1998. “Assessment and Classroom Learning.” Assessment in Education 5 (1):7–74.

Black, Paul, and Wiliam, Dylan. 1998. “Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment.” Phi Delta Kappan 80 (2):139–148.

Bloom, Benjamin. 1984. “The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring.” Educational Leadership 41:4–17.

Crooks, Terry J. 1988. “The Impact of Classroom Evaluation on Students.” Review of Educational Research 58 (4):438–481.

Stiggins, Richard J. 2001. Student-Involved Classroom Assessment, 3rd edition. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Richard Stiggins
Feuerstein, Reuven; Rand, Ya’cov; and Hoffman, Mildred B. 1979. The Dynamic Assessment of Retarded Performers: The Learning Potential Assessment Device: Theory, Instruments, and Techniques. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Haywood, H. Carl. 1997. “Interactive Assessment.” In Assessment of Individuals with Mental Retardation, ed. Ronald L. Taylor. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Haywood, H. Carl, and Tzuriel, David, eds. 1992. Interactive Assessment. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Lidz, Carol S., ed. 1987. Dynamic Assessment. New York: Guilford.

Tzuriel, David. 1999. “Parent-Child Mediated Learning Transactions as Determinants of Cognitive Modifiability: Recent Research and Future Directions.” Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 125:109–156.

Tzuriel, David. 2001. Dynamic Assessment of Young Children. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Tzuriel, David, and Haywood, H. Carl. 1992. “The Development of Interactive-Dynamic Approaches for Assessment of Learning Potential. In Interactive Assessment, ed. H. Carl Haywood and David Tzuriel. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Tzuriel, David, and Klein, Pnina S. 1985. “Analogical Thinking Modifiability in Disadvantaged, Regular, Special Education, and Mentally Retarded Children.” Journal of Abnormal ChildPsychology 13:539–552.

Tzuriel, David, and Samuels, Marilyn T. 2000. “Dynamic Assessment of Learning Potential: Inter-Rater Reliability of Deficient Cognitive Functions, Type of Mediation, and Non-Intellective Factors.” Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology 1:41–64.

Vygotsky, Lev. s. 1978. Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

David Tzuriel”

Further Reading (Books 2)

“Alexander, Lamar. 1991. America 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Alexander, Lamar, and James, H. Thomas. 1987. The Nation’s Report Card: Improving the Assessment of Student Achievement. Stanford, CA: National Academy of Education.

Glaser, Robert; Linn, Robert; and Bohrnstedt, George. 1992. Assessing Student Achievement in the States. Stanford, CA: National Academy of Education.

Glaser, Robert; Linn, Robert; and Bohrnstedt, George. 1993. The Trial State Assessment: Prospects and Realities. Stanford, CA: National Academy of Education.

Glaser, Robert; Linn, Robert; and Bohrnstedt, George. 1996. Quality and Utility: The 1994 Trial State Assessment in Reading. Stanford, CA: National Academy of Education.

Glaser, Robert; Linn, Robert; and Bohrnstedt, George. 1997. Assessment in Transition: Monitoring the Nation’s Educational Progress. Stanford, CA: National Academy of Education.

Jones, Lyle V. 1996. “A History of the National Assessment of Educational Progress and Some Questions about Its Future.” Educational Researcher 25 (6):1–8.

Messick, Samuel; Beaton, Albert; and Lord, Frederick. 1983. National Assessment of Educational Progress Reconsidered: A New Design for a New Era. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

National Center for Education Statistics. 1974. NAEP General Information Yearbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

National Commission on Excellence in Education. 1983. A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Office of Technology Assessment. 1992. Testing in America’s Schools: Asking the Right Questions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Pellegrino, James W.; Jones, Lee R.; and Mitchell, Karen J. 1999. Grading the Nation’s Report Card: Evaluating NAEP and Transforming the Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

James W. Pellegrino”

Further Reading (Articles)

“Airasian, Peter W. 1991. Classroom Assessment. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Baxter, Gail P., and Glaser, Robert. 1998. “Investigating the Cognitive Complexity of Science Assessments.” Educational Measurement: Issuesand Practice 17 (3):37–45.

Bennett, Randy E., and Ward, William C., eds. 1993. Construction Versus Choice in Cognitive Measurement. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bond, Lloyd A. 1995. “Unintended Consequences of Performance Assessment: Issues of Bias and Fairness.” Educational Measurement: Issues andPractice 14 (4):21–24.

Bond, Lloyd A.; Braskamp, David; and Roeber, Edward. 1996. The Status Report of the Assessment Programs in the United States. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.

Brennan, Robert L., and Johnson, Eugene G. 1995. “Generalizability of Performance Assessments.” Educational Measurement: Issues andPractice 14 (4):9–12, 27.

Cole, Nancy S. 1988. “A Realist’s Appraisal of the Prospects for Unifying Instruction and Assessment.” Assessment in the Service of Learning: Proceedings of the 1987 ETS Invitational Conference. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Darling-Hammond, Linda. 1995. “Equity Issues in Performance-Based Assessment.” In Equity and Excellence in Educational Testing and Assessment, ed. Michael T. Nettles and Arie L. Nettles. Boston: Kluwer.

Frederiksen, John R., and Collins, Allan. 1989. “A Systems Approach to Educational Testing.” Educational Researcher 18 (9):27–32.

Gao, X. James; Shavelson, Richard J.; and Baxter, Gail P. 1994. “Generalizability of Large-Scale Performance Assessments in Science: Promises and Problems.” Applied Measurementin Education 7:323–342.

Glaser, Robert, and Silver, Edward A. 1994. “Assessment, Testing, and Instruction: Retrospect and Prospect.” In Review of Research in Education, Vol. 20, ed. Linda Darling-Hammond. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.”

More Related Articles

“Green, Bert F. 1995. “Comparability of Scores from Performance Assessments.” Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice 14 (4):13–15,24.

Heubert, Jay, and Hauser, Robert. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Messick, Samuel. 1994. “The Interplay of Evidence and Consequences in the Validation of Performance Assessments.” Educational Researcher 23 (1):13–23.

Messick, Samuel, ed. 1995. “Special Issue: Values and Standards in Performance Assessment: Issues, Findings, and Viewpoints.” Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice 14 (4).

Pellegrino, James; Chudowsky, Naomi; and Glaser, Robert. 2001. Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Reckase, Mark, ed. 1993. “Special Issue: Performance Assessment.” Journal of Educational Measurement 30 (3).

Resnick, Lauren B., and Resnick, Daniel P. 1992. “Assessing the Thinking Curriculum: New Tools for Educational Reform.” In Changing Assessments: Alternative Views of Aptitude, Achievement, and Instruction, ed. Bernard R. Gifford and Mary C. O’Connor. Boston: Kluwer.

Shavelson, Richard J.; Baxter, Gail P.; and Gao, X. James. 1993. “Sampling Variability of Performance Assessments.” Journal of Educational Measurement 30:215–232.

Shavelson, Richard J.; Baxter, Gail P.; and Pine, Jerry. 1992. “Performance Assessments: Political Rhetoric and Measurement Reality.” Educational Researcher 21 (4):22–27.

Silver, Edward A.; Alacaci, Cengiz; and Stylianou, Despina. 2000. “Students’ Performance on Extended Constructed-Response Tasks.” In Results from the Seventh Mathematics Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress, ed. Edward A. Silver and Patricia A. Kenney. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Smith, Mary L. 1991. “Put to the Test: The Effects of External Testing on Teachers.” Educational Researcher 20 (5):8–11.” “Wiggins, Grant. 1989a. “Teaching to the (Authentic) Test.” Educational Leadership 46 (7):41–47.

Wiggins, Grant. 1989b. “A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment.” Phi Delta Kappan 70:703–713.

Wiggins, Grant. 1992. “Creating Tests Worth Taking.” Educational Leadership 49 (8):26–33.

Wolf, Dennie; Bixby, Janet; Glenn, John, III; and Gardner, Howard. 1991. “To Use Their Minds Well: Investigating New Forms of Student Assessment.” In Review of Research in Education, Vol. 17, ed. Gerald Grant. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

Edward A. Silver
Camp, Roberta. 1993. “The Place of Portfolios in Our Changing Views.” In Construction versus Choice in Cognitive Measurement: Issues in Constructed Response, Performance Testing, and Portfolio Assessment, ed. Randy E. Bennett and William C. Ward. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Chen, Yih-Fen, and Martin, Michael A. 2000. “Using Performance Assessment and Portfolio Assessment Together in the Elementary Classroom.” Reading Improvement 37 (1):32–37.

Cole, Donna H.; Ryan, Charles W.; and Kick, Fran. 1995. Portfolios Across the Curriculum and Beyond. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Gearhart, Maryl, and Herman, Joan L. 1995. “Portfolio Assessment: Whose Work Is It? Issues in the Use of Classroom Assignments for Accountability.” Evaluation Comment. Los Angeles: University of California, Center for the Study of Evaluation.

Graves, Donald H. 1992. “Portfolios: Keep a Good Idea Growing.” In Portfolio Portraits, ed. Donald H. Graves and Bonnie S. Sunstein. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books.

Herman, Joan L.; Gearhart, Maryl; and Aschbacher, Pamela. 1996. “Portfolios for Classroom Assessment: Design and Implementation Issues.” In Writing Portfolios in the Classroom, ed. Robert Calfee and Pamela Perfumo. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hewitt, Geof. 2001. “The Writing Portfolio: Assessment Starts with A.” Clearing House 74 (4):187.

Lockledge, Ann. 1997. “Portfolio Assessment in Middle-School and High-School Social Studies Classrooms.” Social Studies 88 (2):65–70.

Meadows, Robert B., and Dyal, Allen B. 1999. “Implementing Portfolio Assessment in the Development of School Administrators: Improving Preparation for Educational Leadership.” Education 120 (2):304.

Murphy, Sandra M. 1997. “Who Should Taste the Soup and When? Designing Portfolio Assessment Programs to Enhance Learning.” Clearing House 71 (2):81–85.

Stecher, Brian, and Herman, Joan L. 1997. “Using Portfolios for Large Scale Assessment.” In Handbook of Classroom Assessment, ed. Gary Phye. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Wenzlaff, Terri L. 1998. “Dispositions and Portfolio Development: Is There a Connection?” Education 118 (4):564–573.

Wolf, Dennie P. 1989. “Portfolio Assessment: Sampling Student Work.” Educational Leadership 46:35–39.

Joan L. Herman

Stephen A. Zuniga” “Philip, I., ed. Assessing Elderly People in Hospital and Community Care London: Farrand Press, 1994.

Rockwood, K.; Silvius, J.; and Fox, R. “Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment: Helping Your Elderly Patients Maintain Functional Well-being.” Postgraduate Medicine 103 (1998): 247–264.

Rockwood, K.; Stadnyk, K.; Carver, D.; Mac-Pherson, K.; Beanlands, H. E.; Powell, C.; Stolee, P.; Thomas, V. S.; and Tonks, R. S. “A Clinimetric Evaluation of Specialized Geriatric Care for Frail Elderly People.” Journal of the American Geriatric Society 48 (9) 2000: 1080–1085.” “Assessment: Placing the Emphasis on Learning in Information Systems Programs and Classes, Journal of Information Systems Education; July 1, 2008; White, Bruce Longenecker, Herbert (Bart) McKell, Lynn Harris, Albert L
Assessments Made in 2003 Foretold Situation in Iraq; Intelligence Studies List Internal Violence, Terrorist Activity, The Washington Post; May 20, 2007; Walter Pincus – Washington Post Staff Writer
Assessment Overhaul Supports Statewide Transition to Common Core Suspension of Star Tests Shows Commitment to Higher Standards, Deeper Learning, States News Service; September 4, 2013
Using assessment to build a culture of improvement, The Presidency; April 1, 2002; Taylor, Judson H
Assessment Measures of Secondary Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors, Rehabilitation Oncology; January 1, 2014; Perdomo, Marisa Davies, Claire Levenhagen, Kim Ryans, Kathryn
Classroom Assessment, Journal of Engineering Education; April 1, 1998; Schaeiwitz, Joseph A.
Computerized Assessment Technique for Large Classes, Journal of Engineering Education; April 1, 1998; Mehta, Sudhir I. Schlecht, Nem W.
Assessment Practice in Student Affairs: An Applications Manual, College and University; October 1, 2001; Andreatta, Britt
Assessment through Portfolios in Retail Merchandising, Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences; January 1, 1998; Paulins, V. Ann
Assessment Use by Counselors in the United States: Implications for Policy and Practice, Journal of Counseling and Development : JCD; January 1, 2014; Peterson, Christina Hamme Lomas, Gabriel I. Neukrug, Edward S. Bonner, Mattew W.
PREPAID ASSESSMENTS FINAL RULE, US Fed News Service, Including US State News; November 28, 2009
Every Assessment Fells a Story, Science Scope; January 1, 2014; Ende, Fred
Beginning an Assessment Project: A Case Study Using Data Audit and Content Analysis, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education; January 1, 2005; Bird, Eleanora Anderson, Heidi M Anaya, Guadalupe Moore, Deborah L
Assessment going up for many city homes ; Owners can expect increase in tax bills, The Buffalo News (Buffalo, NY); December 5, 2009; Brian Meyer
Assessment of Family Violence: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy; January 1, 2004; Todahl, Jeff
Assessment steps, Credit Union Management; August 1, 2000; Heimstead, Mary
Assessment through an Integrated Approach, Practically Primary; February 1, 2012; Walker, Dot
Assessment in Scotland, NATE Classroom; June 22, 2010; Harris, Linda Gallagher, Hugh Soltysek, Raymond Allan, Jenny Lawson, John
Assessment Issues and the Elementary School-Age Child, Part I, JOPERD–The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance; September 1, 2002; Arbogast, Gary A.
Assessment in Rehabilitation and Health.(Book review), The Journal of Rehabilitation; April 1, 2011; Mercurio-Riley, Denise”

Assessment in State Statute Topics

Introduction to Assessment Advisory Committee

The purpose of Assessment is to provide a broad appreciation of the Assessment legal topic. Select from the list of U.S. legal topics for information (other than Assessment).


Further Reading

Family Assessment and Planning Team or FAPT in Juvenile Law

In this context, Family Assessment and Planning Team or FAPT information is available through this American legal Encyclopedia.

Assessment: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Assessment. This part provides references, in relation to Assessment, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about Assessment by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Assessment and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Assessment or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Assessment and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Assessment. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Assessment should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Assessment when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

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