Appellate Courts

Appellate Courts in the United States

The appeals courts differ from trial courts in several ways, but the principal difference is functional. Trial courts are designed to deal with questions of fact. A trial jury may determine, for example, that an accused has been factually proven guilty of a crime. Appeals courts almost always defer to the trial court’s fact decision and focus instead on the way the trial court reached its decision. A criminal case that focused on whether the accused committed the crime at the trial level may focus on, for example, the adequacy of a police search or warnings given prior to eliciting an incriminating statement from the defendant.

Correcting errors that occur at trial is one of the primary functions of appellate courts. As important as that function is, its impact is muted somewhat by the relatively small number of cases that pursue appeals and the even smaller number that are successful. Greater

Analysis and Relevance

attaches to the function of establishing or clarifying principles of law or policy, which then apply to all similar situations. The only issue before an appeals court is the legal question (or questions) raised by the case, which will be resolved exclusively by the judges of the appeals court. The court hears no new evidence and operates without such crucial fact-finding elements as juries or witnesses.

The jurisdiction of appeals courts tends to parallel the jurisdiction of the trial courts in the system, although the match is not exact. Federal appellate courts generally hear cases from federal trial courts, although review of certain agency and regulatory commission decisions takes place as well. The federal court system and many state systems contain two levels of appeals courts. The first level—known as the intermediate level—is typically required to review cases pursuing appeal; their jurisdiction is mandatory. Second-level courts are usually the courts of last resort or supreme courts. They generally have discretionary jurisdiction. Where an appellate court has Mandatory Jurisdiction (U.S.), the appeals process commences when the losing party in a lower court case decides to seek review. The party initiating the appeal (the appellant) then furnishes the court with a record of the lower court proceeding, including a transcript of the trial, and a written brief arguing the appellant’s case. The other party (the appellee) is entitled to submit arguments in response.

If review is sought from a court with discretionary jurisdiction, the process is somewhat more involved. The party wishing review of a lower court decision (the Petitioner (U.S.)) is required to convince the appellate court to hear the case. The Petitioner (U.S.) submits a record of the case and a brief supporting the request for review. The court then rules on the petition for review. If review is not granted, the decision of the lower court becomes final. If the case is accepted, it is treated from that point in the same manner as a case before a court with Mandatory Jurisdiction (U.S.).

The written materials addressing the merits of the case are considered by the judges involved in the review. Appellate courts typically function with more than one judge per case; most intermediate courts use three-judge panels, while second-level courts generally use their full memberships. As a result, group processes such as the conference become key locations of decision making. The opposing parties are then permitted to make oral presentations, which supplement their written submissions. Following oral argument, the court meets in conference and reaches a preliminary decision. Its choices are to affirm (uphold), reverse (change completely), or modify (change in part) the lower court decision. One of the judges from the majority side is assigned the task of explaining the decision. This opinion of the court discusses the legal principles found to govern the case, and the court’s rationale for their use. Drafts of the majority opinion are circulated and modifications made on the basis of the responses of the other judges. Other judges hearing the case have the option of offering individual and alternative opinions. Before each judge takes a final position on a case, extensive negotiations may occur in an effort to reach consensus. When the decision is finally announced, an opinion of the court is issued on behalf of the majority. This opinion and its representation of the key rules of law is the precedent established by the decision. A judge arriving at the same decision as the majority but for different reasons may issue a concurring opinion. Any judge in the minority in a case may write a dissenting opinion.

Both first- and second-level appeals courts feel sufficient pressure from their case backlog to screen cases or use summary procedures to expedite review. Second-level courts typically have discretionary jurisdiction, and they can refuse to hear certain cases. These courts have screening procedures in place to enable docket decisions to be efficiently reached. The most important screening criteria in the selection of cases appear to be the policy preferences of the judges, lack of clarity on a legal issue as reflected in conflicting decisions of lower courts, and the

Analysis and Relevance

of the legal issues present in a case. Courts with Mandatory Jurisdiction (U.S.) do not have the option of denying review. They can, however, separate cases into categories and dispose of many cases summarily, thus preserving the bulk of their time for more compelling questions.

The output of the appellate process consists of decisions, which establish legal principles for cases that follow and have policy impacts reaching outside the court system. The decisions reached by appellate courts are influenced by several things. First, of course, are the policy preferences of the judges. These preferences are clearly ideologically driven. Second, appellate decisions are influenced by the collective decision making processes used by appeals courts. Finally, appellate court decisions are subject to the influences of factors external to the courts. Especially significant are influences emanating from the legal community, public opinion, and the political system.

Notes and References

  1. Definition of Appellate Courts from the American Law Dictionary, 1991, California

Appellate Courts and the Federal Courts

In the words of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts: The 94 judicial districts are organized into 12 regional circuits, each of which has a United States court of appeals. A court of appeals hears challenges to district court decisions from courts located within its circuit, as well as appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies. In addition, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has nationwide jurisdiction to hear appeals in specialized cases, such as those involving patent laws and cases decided by the Court of International Trade and the Court of Federal Claims.

Appellate Courts

Explaining transformations in Supreme Court policy, Goldstein, Leslie Friedman and Stech, Diana, 79: 80-85 (Sept.-Oct. '95, AJS Judicature)

  • Explaining U.S. circuit court decision making, Cross, Frank B., 88: 30-35 (July-Aug '04, AJS Judicature)
  • An Exploratory Analysis of The Supreme Court's Caseload from 1880-1976, McLauchlan, William P., 64: 32-42 (Jun.-Jul. '80, AJS Judicature)
  • Facing the Monster in the Judicial Closet: Rebutting a Presumption of Sloth, Brown, David J., 75: 291-293 (Apr.-May '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Failure to understand (letter), Gross, Samuel R., 84: 114 (Nov.-Dec. '00, AJS Judicature)
  • The federal appellate study at midpoint (focus), Tobias, Carl, 82: 44-45 (July-Aug. '98, AJS Judicature)
  • Federal Court Reform Should Start At The Top, Miner, Roger J., 77: 104-108 (Sep.-Oct. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • The Fifth Anglo-American Exchange: Some Observations, Kaufman, Irving R., 61: 327-331 (Feb. '78, AJS Judicature)
  • The First-Term Performance of Justice Clarence Thomas, Smith, Christopher E. and Johnson, Scott P., 76: 172-178 (Dec.-Jan. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • The First-Term Performance of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Smith, Christopher E., Baugh, Joyce Ann, Hensley, Thomas R., and Johnson, Scott P., 78: 74-80 (Sep.-Oct. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • The first-term performance of Justice Stephen Breyer, Smith, Christopher E., Baugh, Joyce Ann, and Hensley, Thomas R., 79: 74-79 (Sept.-Oct. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • The Fourth Amendment Past and Future (letter), Harris, Daniel M., 68: 37-41 (Jun.-Jul. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • Freshman Opinion Writing on the U.S. Supreme Court, 1921-1991, Brown, Terry and Scheb, John M., II, 76: 239-243 (Feb.-Mar. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Friendly Fire: Amici Curiae and Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, Behuniak-Long, Susan, 74: 261-270 (Feb.-Mar. '91, AJS Judicature)
  • The Function and Importance of Appellate Oral Argument: Some Views of Lawyers and Federal Judges, Wasby, Stephen L., 65: 340-353 (Feb. '82, AJS Judicature)
  • Gender, consciousness raising, and decision making on the Supreme Court of Canada,, Jilani, Nadia A., Songer, Donald R., and Johnson, Susan W., 94: 59-69 (sep-oct '10, AJS Judicature)
  • German Appellate Judges: Career Patterns and American-English Comparisons, Meador, Daniel J., 67: 16-27 (Jun.-Jul. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Going Through the Motions: The Monotony of Appellate Court Decisionmaking, Wold, John T., 62: 58-65 (Aug. '78, AJS Judicature)
  • Granted, Vacated, and Remanded – Shedding Light on a Dark Corner of Supreme Court Practice, Hellman, Arthur D., 67: 389-401 (Mar. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • Hawaii chapter recommends unpublished opinions be citable (focus), Stanik, Kristine, 86: 162 (Nov.-Dec. '02, AJS Judicature)
  • Helping the Supreme Court By Reducing the Flow of Cases Into the Courts of Appeals, Griswold, Erwin N., 67: 58-67 (Aug. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • The Hidden Conservatism of the State Court “Revolution”, Latzer, Barry, 74: 190-197 (Dec.-Jan. '91, AJS Judicature)
  • House authorizes appellate court study commission (focus), Tobias, Carl, 80: 292-297 (May-June '97, AJS Judicature)
  • How do courts of appeals en banc decisions fare in the U.S. Supreme Court?, Wasby, Stephen L., 85: 182-189 (Jan.-Feb '02, AJS Judicature)
  • How Supreme Court justices respond to litigant requests to overturn precedent, Segal, Jeffrey A. and Howard, Robert M., 85: 148-157 (Nov.-Dec. '01, AJS Judicature)
  • The ideology of state supreme court chief justice, an update, Langer, Laura, 90: 37-38 (July-Aug '06, AJS Judicature)
  • The ideology of state supreme court chief justices, Langer, Laura and Wilhelm, Teena, 89: 78-86 (Sept.-Oct. '05, AJS Judicature)
  • Ideology, Strategy and Supreme Court Decisions: William Rehnquist as Chief Justice, Rohde, David W. and Spaeth, Harold J., 72: 247-250 (Dec.-Jan. '89, AJS Judicature)
  • Improving appellate opinions (viewpoint), Cappalli, Richard, 83: 286-287, 318-320 (May-June '00, AJS Judicature)
  • Improving the Process: Case Selection by the Supreme Court, Estreicher, Samuel and Sexton, John, 70: 41-47 (Jun.-Jul. '86, AJS Judicature)
  • Individual justices and the solicitor general: The amicus curiae cases, 1953-2000, Deen, Rebecca E., Ignagni, Joseph, and Meernik, James, 89: 68-77 (Sept.-Oct. '05, AJS Judicature)
  • The Influence of the Solicitor General on Supreme Court Disposition of Federal Circuit Court Decisions: A Closer Look at the Ninth Circuit Record, Uelmen, Gerald F., 69: 360-366 (Apr.-May '86, AJS Judicature)
  • Innovative Appellate Court Processing: New Hampshire's Experience with Summary Affirmance, Douglas, Charles G., III, 69: 147-152 (Oct.-Nov. '85, AJS Judicature)
  • Interaction and Decisionmaking on Collegial Courts: A Panel Discussion (panel discussion), Discussion, Panel, 71: 339-344 (Apr.-May '88, AJS Judicature)
  • An Intercircuit Panel of the United States Court of Appeals: The Cost of Structural Change, Winters, Richard H., 70: 31-40 (Jun.-Jul. '86, AJS Judicature)
  • An Intercircuit Profile of Judges on the U.S. Courts of Appeals, Haire, Susan, Gryski, Gerard S., Zuk, Gary, and Barrow, Deborah J., 78: 101-103 (Sep.-Oct. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • Interpreting the Constitution: The Case for Judicial Restraint, Wallace, J. Clifford, 71: 81-84 (Aug.-Sep. '87, AJS Judicature)
  • Interpreting the Constitution: The Supreme Court's Proper and Historic Function, Shaman, Jeffrey M., 71: 80, 84-87, 122 (Aug.-Sep. '87, AJS Judicature)
  • Interstate Certification of Questions of Law: A Valuable Process in Need of Reform, Robbins, Ira P., 76: 125-132 (Oct.-Nov. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Introduction: Evaluating the Rehnquist Court's legacy (introduction), Marshall, Thomas R., 89: 104-106 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
  • Introduction: Social science, the courts, and the law (introduction), Epstein, Lee, 83: 224-227 (Mar.-Apr. '00, AJS Judicature)
  • Judges Judge the Supreme Court, Caldeira, Gregory A., 61: 208-219 (Nov. '77, AJS Judicature)
  • Judges, Law-Making and the Constitution: A Response to Professor White, Downs, Harry, 63: 444-454 (Apr. '80, AJS Judicature)
  • Judicial Activism and the Identity of the Legal Profession (review essay), White, G. Edward, 67: 246-255 (Nov. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Judicial Activism: Another View (letter), Downs, Harry, 67: 420, 466 (Apr. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • Judicial credibility at issue (letter), Salibra, Lawrence A., II, 84: 115 (Nov.-Dec. '00, AJS Judicature)
  • Judicial ideology and the decision to publish: Voting and publication patterns in Ninth Circuit asylum cases, Law, David S., 89: 212-219 (Jan.-Feb. '06, AJS Judicature)
  • Judicial Improvement: What's Going On In The States? (focus), Krasno, Miriam R., 67: 149-151 (Sep. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Judicial perceptions of consensual norms on state supreme courts, Swanson, Rick A., 91: 186-196 (Jan-Feb '08, AJS Judicature)
  • The Judicial Power: The Cement That Holds The Republic Together, Percy, Billups P., 71: 65-67 (Aug.-Sep. '87, AJS Judicature)
  • Judicial Responses to Prison Crowding, Finn, Peter, 67: 318, 325 (Feb. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • Judicial roles in state high courts, Swanson, Rick A., 94: 168-177 (Jan-Feb '11, AJS Judicature)
  • The Judiciary Act of 1789: The Formal Origin of Federal Judicial Review, Mendelson, Wallace, 76: 133-136 (Oct.-Nov. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Judicious Consideration (letter), Rosenhouse, Michael A., 65: 56 (Aug. '81, AJS Judicature)
  • Justice Antonin Scalia: A First Year Freshman Effect?, Rubin, Thea F. and Melone, Albert P., 72: 98-102 (Aug.-Sep. '88, AJS Judicature)
  • Justice Brennan and the Brandenburg decision-a lawgiver in action, Schwartz, Bernard, 79: 24-29 (July-Aug. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Justice Brennan and the institutionalization of dissent assignment, Cook, Beverly Blair, 79: 17-23 (July-Aug. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Justice Department Says No To National Court of Appeals (news), Author, No, 60: 300 (Jan. '77, AJS Judicature)
  • Justice Dept. Proposes New Limits on the Use of Designated Judges (news), Author, No, 62: 255 (Nov. '78, AJS Judicature)
  • Justice Frankfurter and Justice Reed: Friendship and Lobbying on the Court, Canon, Bradley C., Greenfield, Kimberly, and Fleming, Jason S., 78: 224-231 (Mar.-Apr. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Justice O'Connor and the Equal Protection Clause: A Feminine Voice?, Aliotta, Jilda M., 78: 232-235 (Mar.-Apr. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and the “Freshman Effect”, Scheb, John M., II and Ailshie, Lee W., 69: 9-12 (Jun.-Jul. '85, AJS Judicature)
  • Keeping their distance: appellate courts and local communities, Barclay, Scott, 82: 35-36, 38 (July-Aug. '98, AJS Judicature)
  • Keeping Up With Justice: Automation and the New Activism, Lateef, Noel V., 67: 213-223 (Nov. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Law By Elimination? Depublication in the California Supreme Court, Gerstein, Robert S., 67: 292, 298 (Dec.-Jan. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • Legal staff and the dynamics of appellate decision making, Norman, Douglas K., 84: 175-177 (Jan.-Feb. '01, AJS Judicature)
  • Legislative-judicial relations on contested issues: Taxes and same-sex marriage, DeMary, Michele, 89: 202-211 (Jan.-Feb. '06, AJS Judicature)
  • Limiting Federal Court Jurisdiction: A Self-Inflicted Wound?, Abraham, Henry J., 65: 178-184 (Oct. '81, AJS Judicature)
  • Limiting Federal Court Jurisdiction: The Constitutional Basis for the Proposals in Congress Today, Rice, Charles E., 65: 190-197 (Oct. '81, AJS Judicature)
  • Limiting Federal Court Jurisdiction: The Unconstitutionality of Current Legislative Proposals, Taylor, Telford, 65: 198-208 (Oct. '81, AJS Judicature)
  • Limiting Federal Court Jurisdiction: The Unforeseen Impact on Courts and Congress, Kay, Kenneth R., 65: 185-189 (Oct. '81, AJS Judicature)
  • Looking Beyond the Constitution, White, G. Edward, 63: 465, 500 (May '80, AJS Judicature)
  • Making Intermediate Appellate Courts Final: Assessing Jurisdictional Changes in Florida's Appellate Courts, Scheb, John M. and Scheb, John M., II, 67: 474-485 (May '84, AJS Judicature)
  • Maryland launches mediation program in appellate court (brief), Richert, David, 93: 212 (3, AJS Judicature)
  • The meaning of capital appeals: a rejoinder to Liebman, Fagan, and West, Latzer, Barry and Cauthen, James N.G., 84: 142-143 (Nov.-Dec. '00, AJS Judicature)
  • The Memos of Supreme Court Law Clerk William Rehnquist: Conservative Tracts, or Mirrors of His Justice's Mind?, Brenner, Saul, 76: 77-81 (Aug.-Sep. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • A Modest Experiment (letter), Kelly, Michael J., 75: 288-289 (Apr.-May '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Monstrous Analysis (letter), Griffith, Frederick J., III, 75: 288 (Apr.-May '92, AJS Judicature)
  • More facts needed (letter), Flanders, Steven, 81: 6 (July-Aug. '97, AJS Judicature)
  • Motion on the Merits: An Effective Response to Appellate Congestion and Delay (focus), Green, Dale M. and Keyes, Michael F., 70: 168-170 (Oct.-Nov. '86, AJS Judicature)
  • Mr. Brown's Response, Brown, David J., 75: 337 (Apr.-May '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Mr. Gizzi Responds (letter), Gizzi, Michael C., 77: 125,175 (Nov.-Dec. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Mr. Harris Replies (letter), Harris, Daniel M., 68: 56-57 (Aug.-Sep. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • My “Freshman Years” On The Court of Appeals, Kaye, Judith S., 70: 166-167 (Oct.-Nov. '86, AJS Judicature)
  • Neither Gone nor Forgotten: Evaluating the potential impact of senior status judges on the U.S. Courts of Appeals, Holmes, Lisa M., Solberg, Rorie L., Spill, and Haire, Susan B, 95: 227-236 (Mar.-Apr. '12, AJS Judicature)
  • A New Appeals Court? (letter), Cataldo, Anthony B., 64: 336 (Feb. '81, AJS Judicature)
  • The new certiorari courts (viewpoint), Reynolds, William L. and Richman, William M., 80: 206-212 (Mar.-Apr. '97, AJS Judicature)
  • A New Dimension (letter), Cohn, Avern, 76: 170 (Dec.-Jan. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • The new federalism: state constitutions and state courts, Gutmann, Diane S. and Abrahamson, Shirley S., 71: 88-99 (Aug.-Sep. '87, AJS Judicature)
  • New Law Eliminates Supreme Court's Mandatory Jurisdiction (focus), Weisberg, Lynn, 72: 138 (Oct.-Nov. '88, AJS Judicature)
  • A new measure for understanding the tenure of U.S. Supreme Court justices, 1789-2009, grofman, bernard and kline, reuben, 93: 247-252 (6, AJS Judicature)
  • Ninth Circuit Appellate Commissioner Assists Judges, Frank, Lauren, 78: 321 (May-Jun. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Ninth Circuit update (letter), Tobias, Carl, 80: 5, 49 (July-Aug. '96, AJS Judicature)
  • Nonlegal advice: The amicus briefs in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, Rossotti, Jack E., Natelson, Laura, and Tatalovich, Raymond, 81: 118-121 (Nov.-Dec. '97, AJS Judicature)
  • The O'Connor Project: Intervening early to eliminate the need for racial preferences in higher education, Schorr, Lisbeth B., 88: 92-96 (Sept.-Oct. '04, AJS Judicature)
  • Of Limited Applicability? (letter), Howard, Samuel F., Jr., 68: 56 (Aug.-Sep. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • On Limiting the Jurisdiction of Federal Courts (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 65: 124, 170 (Sep. '81, AJS Judicature)
  • On Senior Federal Judges and The New Social Security Law (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 67: 108 (Sep. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • On the perils of drawing inferences about Supreme Court justices from their first few years of service, Epstein, Lee, Quinn, Kevin, Martin, Andrew D., and Segal, Jeffrey A., 91: 168-179 (Jan-Feb '08, AJS Judicature)
  • On the Supreme Court's Annual Trek to the Capitol, Yarwood, Dean L. and Canon, Bradley C., 63: 322-327 (Feb. '80, AJS Judicature)
  • Opinion assignment on the Rehnquist Court, Maltzman, Forrest and Wahlbeck, Paul J., 89: 121-126, 181 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
  • Opinion Assignment Procedures and Conference Practices in State Supreme Courts, Hall, Melinda Gann, 73: 209-214 (Dec.-Jan. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • Opinion Assignment Procedures and Conference Practices in State Supreme Courts: A Correction (letter), Hall, Melinda Gann, 74: 65 (Aug.-Sep. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • Opinion Filings and Appellate Court Productivity, Vickrey, William C., 78: 47-52 (Jul.-Aug. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • Organizing The Criminal Appeals Process: The Views of Judges, Government Attorneys and Defense Counsel, Hanson, Roger A. and Chapper, Joy, 72: 239-246 (Dec.-Jan. '89, AJS Judicature)
  • Panel rejects Ninth Circuit split (focus), Tobias, Carl, 82: 144-145 (Nov.-Dec. '98, AJS Judicature)
  • Partisan imbalance on the U.S. courts of appeals, Velona, Jess A., 89: 25-34 (July-Aug. '05, AJS Judicature)
  • The Paths to the Federal Bench: Gender, Race and Judicial Recruitment Variation, Slotnick, Elliot E., 67: 370-388 (Mar. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • Patterns of Voting Behavior in Judicial Retention Elections for Supreme Court Justices in Wyoming, Griffin, Kenyon N. and Horan, Michael J., 67: 68-77 (Aug. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • The Per Curiam Opinion: Its Nature and Functions, Wasby, Stephen L., Peterson, Steven, Schubert, James, and Schubert, Glendon, 76: 29-38 (Jun.-Jul. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Polarization and Change in the Federal Courts: En Banc Decisions in the U.S. Court of Appeals, Smith, Christopher E., 74: 133-137 (Oct.-Nov. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • The politics of court reform in the U.S. courts of appeals, Banks, Christopher P., 84: 34-43 (July-Aug. '00, AJS Judicature)
  • The politics of the federal judiciary: Tiered appellate decisionmaking, Burbank, Stephen B., 89: 20-24 (July-Aug. '05, AJS Judicature)
  • A Postscript On Judicial Law-Making (letter), Downs, Harry, 64: 4 (Jun.-Jul. '80, AJS Judicature)
  • Power on the Court: Chief Justice Rehnquist's Opinion Assignments, Davis, Sue, 74: 66-72 (Aug.-Sep. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • PREVIEW Helps Reporters Cover the Supreme Court (focus), Cardozo, Michael H., 68: 297-299 (Feb.-Mar. '85, AJS Judicature)
  • Professor Dorin's Reply (letter), Dorin, Dennis D., 67: 161, 206 (Oct. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Professor Gottschall's Reply (letter), Gottschall, Jon, 67: 316-317 (Feb. '84, AJS Judicature)
  • Professor Howard Replies (letter), Howard, J. Woodford, Jr., 66: 281 (Feb. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Professor Robbins Responds (letter), Robbins, Ira P., 84: 226 (Mar.-Apr. '01, AJS Judicature)
  • Professor Smith Responds (letter), Smith, Christopher E., 78: 220 (Mar.-Apr. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Promoting Public Understanding of the Supreme Court (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 76: 4, 42 (Jun.-Jul. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Proper perspective (letter), Del, Sole, Joseph, A., 84: 226 (Mar.-Apr. '01, AJS Judicature)
  • Public Opinion and the Rehnquist Court, Marshall, Thomas R., 74: 322-329 (Apr.-May '91, AJS Judicature)
  • Public perception of the Supreme Court in the 1990s, Lyons, William and Scheb, John M., II, 82: 66-69 (Sept.-Oct. '98, AJS Judicature)
  • Quantity Discounts In Appellate Justice, England, Arthur J., Jr. and McMahon, Michael P., 60: 442-450 (Apr. '77, AJS Judicature)
  • A quota system? (letter), Abraham, Henry J., 83: 5 (July-Aug. '99, AJS Judicature)
  • Records and More Records: How the Third Circuit Coped (And Saved Money Too) (focus), Nejelski, Paul and Gallagher, Steven G., 70: 122-124 (Aug.-Sep. '86, AJS Judicature)
  • Reducing High Court Caseload (letter), Adkins, William H., II, 64: 201 (Nov. '80, AJS Judicature)
  • Reflections on the Role of the Supreme Court: The Contemporary Debate and the Lessons of History, White, G. Edward, 63: 162-173 (Oct. '79, AJS Judicature)
  • The Rehnquist Court And American Values, Comiskey, Michael, 77: 261-267 (Mar.-Apr. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • The Rehnquist Court and support of federal agencies, Ignagni, Joseph, Deen, Rebecca E., and Meernik, James, 89: 154-160, 181 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
  • Rehnquist Court Disposition of Lower Court Decisions: Affirmation Not Reversal, Segal, Jeffrey A. and Spaeth, Harold J., 74: 84-88 (Aug.-Sep. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • The Rehnquist Court's shrinking plenary docket, O'Brien, David M., 81: 58-65 (Sept.-Oct. '97, AJS Judicature)
  • A rejected premise (letter), Rittenberg, Leon, III, 80: 295 (May-June '97, AJS Judicature)
  • Relieving an Overworked State Supreme Court: Florida Asks Its Court of Appeal to Assist in Screening Cases (focus), Overton, Ben F., 66: 371-374 (Mar. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Remedies for Appellate Overloads: The Ultimate Solution, Stern, Robert L., 72: 103-110 (Aug.-Sep. '88, AJS Judicature)
  • Reminiscences of Justice Stevens by his law clerks: Justice Stevens? temperance, Greene, Jamal, 94: 11 (July-Aug '10, AJS Judicature)
  • Reminiscences of Justice Stevens by his law clerks: Three lessons learned, Marder, Nancy S., 94: 10 (July-Aug '10, AJS Judicature)
  • Reminiscences of Justice Stevens by his law clerks: Three memorable opinions, Lee, Carol, 94: 9-10 (July-Aug '10, AJS Judicature)
  • Re-opened for business? Caseloads, judicial vacancies, and backlog in the federal circuit courts, Collins, Todd, 95: 20-29 (July-Aug '11, AJS Judicature)
  • Report on appellate mediation (brief), Richert, David, 85: 252 (Mar.-Apr. '02, AJS Judicature)
  • Restraint In Enviromental Cases By Reagan-Bush Judicial Appointees, Wenner, Lettie M. and Ostberg, Cynthia, 77: 217-220 (Jan.-Feb. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • Retention Elections: An Alaskan Update (letter), Bremson, Francis L., 67: 212, 258 (Nov. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Revisiting the Freshman Effect Hypothesis: The First Two Terms of Justice Anthony Kennedy, Melone, Albert P., 74: 6-13 (Jun.-Jul. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • Role Orientations And Women State Supreme Court Justices, Allen, David W. and Wall, Diane E., 77: 156-165 (Nov.-Dec. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Roving Judges (letter), Griswold, Erwin N., 62: 6 (Jun.-Jul. '78, AJS Judicature)
  • Rubber Stamp or Reason? (letter), Wasby, Stephen L. and Bierman, Luke, 75: 289 (Apr.-May '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Rx for an Overburdened Supreme Court: Is Relief In Sight?, Author, No, 66: 394-407 (Apr. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Seeking a strategy: William J. Brennan's dissent assignments, Wood, Sandra L. and Gansle, Gary M., 81: 73-75 (Sept.-Oct. '97, AJS Judicature)
  • The Selection and Tenure of Chief Justices, Vile, John R., 78: 96-100 (Sep.-Oct. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • Selective Reporting and the Communication of Legal Rights in England, Atkins, Burton M., 76: 58-67 (Aug.-Sep. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Sentencing Guidelines and the Changing Composition of Criminal Appeals: A Preliminary Analysis, Williams, Jimmy J., 76: 94-96 (Aug.-Sep. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Should Litigants Have a Choice Between Specialized Courts and Courts of General Jurisdiction?, Jordan, Ellen R., 66: 14-27 (Jun.-Jul. '82, AJS Judicature)
  • Should Supreme Court Justices Deliberate More Before They Begin to Write? (query), Hassett, Joseph M., 63: 414 (Apr. '80, AJS Judicature)
  • The significance of Brown, Ogletree, Charles J., Jr., 88: 66-72 (Sept.-Oct. '04, AJS Judicature)
  • Sixth Circuit pre-argument conference program helps resolve disputes (focus), Hackett, Terry, 75: 75 (Aug.-Sep. '91, AJS Judicature)
  • Social Leadership, Humor, and Supreme Court Decisionmaking, Dorin, Dennis D., 66: 462-468 (May '83, AJS Judicature)
  • The solicitor general as amicus, 1953-2000: How influential?, Ignagni, Joseph, Deen, Rebecca E., and Meernik, James, 87: 60-71 (Sept.-Oct. '03, AJS Judicature)
  • Some Current Debates, White, Byron R., 73: 155-158, 161 (Oct.-Nov. '89, AJS Judicature)
  • Some Thoughts on Judicial Restraint, Stevens, John Paul, 66: 177-183 (Nov. '82, AJS Judicature)
  • Some Thoughts on the Supreme Court's Workload, Brennan, William J., Jr., 66: 230-235 (Dec.-Jan. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • The Spirit of Dissent, Campbell, J. Louis, III, 66: 304-312 (Feb. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • State Appellate Court Responses to Caseload Growth, Marvell, Thomas B., 72: 282-291 (Feb.-Mar. '89, AJS Judicature)
  • State Post-Conviction Representation of Defendants Sentenced to Death, Wilson, Richard J. and Spangenberg, Robert L., 72: 331-337 (Apr.-May '89, AJS Judicature)
  • State Supreme Court Commitment to State Law, Esler, Michael, 78: 25-32 (Jul.-Aug. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • State supreme courts play key role in judicial discipline (focus), Gray, Cynthia, 86: 267-268 (Mar.-Apr. '03, AJS Judicature)
  • State Supreme Courts, Judicial Federalism and the Other Constitutions, Galie, Peter J., 71: 100-110 (Aug.-Sep. '87, AJS Judicature)
  • States Before the U.S. Supreme Court: Direct Representation in Cases Involving Criminal Rights, 1969-1984, Epstein, Lee and O'Connor, Karen, 70: 305-306 (Feb.-Mar. '87, AJS Judicature)
  • States Before the U.S. Supreme Court: State Attorneys General as Amicus Curiae, Morris, Thomas R., 70: 298-305 (Feb.-Mar. '87, AJS Judicature)
  • Stow and Spaeth Respond (letter), Stow, Mary Lou and Spaeth, Harold J., 75: 289-290 (Apr.-May '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Strategies for Judicial Research: Soaking and Poking in the Judiciary (Further Reflections on Working in the Papers of Supreme Court Justices), Ulmer, S. Sidney, 73: 193-196 (Dec.-Jan. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • Strategies for Judicial Research: Soaking and Poking in the Judiciary (Interviewing Supreme Court Personnel), Perry, H.W.,, Jr., 73: 199-200 (Dec.-Jan. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • Strategies for Judicial Research: Soaking and Poking in the Judiciary (Interviewing U.S. Supreme Court Justices and Interest Group Attorneys), Epstein, Lee, 73: 196-198 (Dec.-Jan. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • Studying the federal appellate system (focus), Tobias, Carl, 80: 138, 140 (Nov.-Dec. '96, AJS Judicature)
  • The Supreme Court and certiorari: what determines the agenda? (editorial), Editorial, AJS, 84: 112 (Nov.-Dec. '00, AJS Judicature)
  • The Supreme Court and Grass Roots: Whom Does the Court Represent Best?, Marshall, Thomas R., 76: 22-28 (Jun.-Jul. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • The Supreme Court and Precedent: An Analysis of Natural Courts and Reversal Trends, Banks, Christopher P., 75: 262-268 (Feb.-Mar. '92, AJS Judicature)
  • Supreme Court and public support for rights claims, Ignagni, Joseph and Marshall, Thomas R., 78: 146-151 (Nov.-Dec. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • The Supreme Court Beat: How Television Covers the U.S. Supreme Court, Katsh, Ethan, 67: 6-11 (Jun.-Jul. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Supreme Court Disposition of Federal Circuit Court Decisions, Spaeth, Harold J., 68: 245-250 (Dec.-Jan. '85, AJS Judicature)
  • Supreme Court to decide three cases affecting the judiciary, Hackett, Terry, 74: 330-331 (Apr.-May '91, AJS Judicature)
  • A Supreme Court without Protestants: Does it matter?, Scheb, John M., II, Sharma, Hemant Kumar, and Glennon, Colin, 94: 12-15 (July-Aug '10, AJS Judicature)
  • The Supreme Court's experience gap (viewpoint), Fortunato, Stephen J., Jr., 82: 251-254, 300 (May-June '99, AJS Judicature)
  • Technology in Appellate Courts: The Ninth Circuit's Experience with Electronic Mail, Wasby, Stephen L., 73: 90-97 (Dec.-Jan. '90, AJS Judicature)
  • Television News And The Supreme Court: A Case Study, Slotnick, Elliot E., 77: 21-33 (Jul.-Aug. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • The Time Taken to Write Opinions as a Determinant of Opinion Assignments, Brenner, Saul and Palmer, Jan, 72: 179-184 (Oct.-Nov. '88, AJS Judicature)
  • Triage in appellate courts: cross-level comparison, Wasby, Stephen L. and Ginn, Martha Humphries, 88: 216-224 (Mar.-Apr. '05, AJS Judicature)
  • The U.S. Supreme Court Judicial Data Base: Providing new insights into the Court, Spaeth, Harold J. and Segal, Jeffrey A., 83: 228-235 (Mar.-Apr. '00, AJS Judicature)
  • U.S. Supreme Court Review of State High Court Decisions, Kilwein, John C. and Brisbin, Richard A., Jr., 78: 33-40, 46 (Jul.-Aug. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • U.S. Supreme Court review of state high court decisions: From the Warren through the Rehnquist Courts, Kilwein, John C. and Brisbin, Richard A., Jr., 89: 146-153, 183 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
  • The United States Supreme Court and judicial review of Congress, 1803-2001, Keith, Linda Camp, 90: 166-176 (Jan-Feb '07, AJS Judicature)
  • An Update on Specialized Courts (letter), Jordan, Ellen R., 66: 56 (Aug. '82, AJS Judicature)
  • The Voice of Sandra Day O'Connor, Davis, Sue, 77: 134-139 (Nov.-Dec. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Voters Decide on State Justice System Issues (focus), Baum, Amy, 76: 203 (Dec.-Jan. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Voting Behavior And Gender On The U.S. Courts Of Appeals, Davis, Sue, Haire, Susan, and Songer, Donald R., 77: 129-133 (Nov.-Dec. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • The voting behavior of Clinton's courts of appeals appointees, Haire, Susan B., Humphries, Martha Anne, and Songer, Donald R., 84: 274-281 (Mar.-Apr. '01, AJS Judicature)
  • Watching the Watchdog (letter), Fishler, Bennett H., Jr., 66: 384 (Apr. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • What's So Funny? (letter), Fishler, Bennett H., Jr., 67: 161 (Oct. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • When Justices Need Lawyers: The U.S. Supreme Court's Legal Office , Winkle, John W., III and Swann, Martha B., 76: 244-249 (Feb.-Mar. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Where have all the politicians gone? Recruiting for the modern Supreme Court, Peretti, Terri L., 91: 112-122 (Nov-Dec '07, AJS Judicature)
  • Who Decides About Oral Argument? (letter), Hill, James C., 66: 280-281 (Feb. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Who participates as amici curiae in the U.S. courts of appeals?, Collins, Paul M., Jr. and Martinek, Wendy L., 94: 128-136 (Nov-Dec '10, AJS Judicature)
  • Who Voted With Whom? (letter), Baxter, Hugh, 78: 220 (Mar.-Apr. '95, AJS Judicature)
  • Will the Proposed National Court of Appeals Create More Problems Than It Solves (query), Lay, Donald P., 66: 437-476 (May '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Women and minorities on state and federal appellate benches, 1985 and 1999, Hurwitz, Mark S. and Lanier, Drew Noble, 85: 84-92 (Sept.-Oct. '01, AJS Judicature)
  • Women justices (letter), Stockmeyer, Norman Otto, Jr., 85: 171 (Jan.-Feb. '02, AJS Judicature)
  • Women Justices In Texas (letter), Phillips, Thomas R., 77: 184 (Jan.-Feb. '94, AJS Judicature)
  • Women's Rights Litigation in the 1980s: More of the Same?, George, Tracey E. and Epstein, Lee, 74: 314-321 (Apr.-May '91, AJS Judicature)
  • The work of appellate judges (viewpoint), Sweeney, Dennis J., 85: 59, 94-95 (Sept.-Oct. '01, AJS Judicature)
  • Yes, But…ABC's Law Correspondent Comments on Network Coverage of the Court, O'Brien, Tim, 67: 12-15 (Jun.-Jul. '83, AJS Judicature)
  • Resources

    Further Reading

    • “A Bench Happily Filled:” Some Historical Reflections on the Supreme Court Appointment Process, Abraham, Henry J., 66: 282-295 (Feb. '83, AJS Judicature)
    • “Into the Soup?”: The Acclimation of Ninth Circuit Appellate Judges, Wasby, Stephen L., 73: 10-16 (Jun.-Jul. '89, AJS Judicature)
    • “Rebunking” A Crisis (letter), Flanders, Steven, 77: 125 (Nov.-Dec. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • “The Supreme Court Decided Today…,” or Did It?, Slotnick, Elliot E. and Segal, Jennifer A., 78: 89-95 (Sep.-Oct. '94, AJS Judicature)
    • The “Bush Twins?” Roberts, Alito, and the conservative agenda, Perry, Barbara A., 92: 302-311 (6, AJS Judicature)
    • Abbreviate Appellate Procedure: An Evaluation of the New Mexico Summary Calendar, Marvell, Thomas B., 75: 86-96 (Aug.-Sep. '91, AJS Judicature)
    • Absolute power (letter), Burrage, Jeanette, 80: 295 (May-June '97, AJS Judicature)
    • Activism on the Indian Supreme Court, Moog, Robert, 82: 124-132 (Nov.-Dec. '98, AJS Judicature)
    • An Addendum to Downs (letter), Morton, W. Brown, 64: 56 (Aug. '80, AJS Judicature)
    • An agency and 12 courts: Social Security disability cases in the U.S. courts of appeals, Haire, Susan and Lindquist, Stefanie, 80: 230-236 (Mar.-Apr. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • An Aid to Reporters (letter), Cardozo, Michael H., 68: 48 (Jun.-Jul. '84, AJS Judicature)
    • American public opinion and the Rehnquist Court, Marshall, Thomas R., 89: 177-180 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
    • The American public's assessment of the Rehnquist Court, Kritzer, Herbert M., 89: 168-176 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
    • Amici Curiae And The Supreme Court's Review Of Fetal Protection Policies, Samuels, Suzanne Uttaro, 78: 236-241 (Mar.-Apr. '95, AJS Judicature)
    • Amici curiae during the Rehnquist years, Owens, Ryan J. and Epstein, Lee, 89: 127-132 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
    • Amicus curiae or amicus praesidentis? Reexamining the role of the solicitor general in filing amici, Pacelle, Richard L., Jr., 89: 317-325 (Mar.-Apr. '06, AJS Judicature)
    • The Amicus Curiae Role of the U.S. Solicitor General in Supreme Court Litigation, O'Connor, Karen, 66: 256-264 (Dec.-Jan. '83, AJS Judicature)
    • Anastasoff v. United States: an update (focus), Braun, Jerome I., 85: 93-94 (Sept.-Oct. '01, AJS Judicature)
    • Another Motive for Depublication (letter), Hirschfeld, Robert A., 67: 368 (Mar. '84, AJS Judicature)
    • Anti-plaintiff bias in the federal appellate courts, Clermont, Kevin M. and Eisenberg, Theodore, 84: 128-134 (Nov.-Dec. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • Appellate courts must conduct independent research of Daubert issues to discover “junk science”, Keasler, Michael E. and Cramer, Cathy, 90: 62-64 (Sept-Oct '06, AJS Judicature)
    • Appellate courts should resist the temptation to conduct their own independent research on scientific issues, Keller, Sharon and Cimics, Donald, 90: 64-65 (Sept-Oct '06, AJS Judicature)
    • Are Heavy Caseloads Changing the Nature of Appellate Justice? (query), Howard, J. Woodford, Jr., 66: 57-59 (Aug. '82, AJS Judicature)
    • Are the justices serving too long? An assessment of tenure on the U.S. Supreme Court, McGuire, Kevin T., 89: 8-15 (July-Aug. '05, AJS Judicature)
    • Assessing the conservatism of the Rehnquist Court, Hensley, Thomas R. and Smith, Christopher E., 77: 83-89 (Sep.-Oct. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Assessing the Impact of Pattern Jury Instructions, Nieland, Robert G., 62: 185-194 (Oct. '78, AJS Judicature)
    • The attorney gender gap in U.S. Supreme Court litigation, Sarver, Tammy A., Kaheny, Erin B., and Szmer, John J., 91: 238-250 (Mar-Apr '08, AJS Judicature)
    • The authors respond (letter), Latzer, Barry and Cauthen, James N.G., 84: 115 (Nov.-Dec. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • The authors respond (letter), Reynolds, William L. and Richman, William M., 81: 6, 40-41 (July-Aug. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • Bargaining and accommodation on the United States Supreme Court: Insight from Justice Blackman, Corley, Pamela C., 90: 157-165 (Jan-Feb '07, AJS Judicature)
    • Beyond Legislative Lobbying: Women's Rights Groups and the Supreme Court, O'Connor, Karen and Epstein, Lee, 67: 134-143 (Sep. '83, AJS Judicature)
    • Brown at 50: The road that lies behind us and the challenges ahead, Clark, Hunter R., 88: 56-59 (Sept.-Oct. '04, AJS Judicature)
    • Burger Court Review of State Court Civil Liberties Decisions, Spaeth, Harold J., 68: 285-291 (Feb.-Mar. '85, AJS Judicature)
    • Campaign Financing for North Carolina's Appellate Courts, Moog, Robert, 76: 68-76 (Aug.-Sep. '92, AJS Judicature)
    • Capital appeals revisited, Latzer, Barry and Cauthen, James N.G., 84: 64-71 (Sept.-Oct. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • Carter's Judicial Appointments: The Influence of Affirmative Action and Merit Selection on Voting on the U.S. Courts of Appeals, Gottschall, Jon, 67: 164-173 (Oct. '83, AJS Judicature)
    • The Case For Large Federal Courts of Appeals (viewpoint), Wallace, J. Clifford, 77: 288-289 (May-Jun. '94, AJS Judicature)
    • Caseload, Conflicts, and Decisional Capacity: Does the Supreme Court Need Help?, Hellman, Arthur D., 67: 28-48 (Jun.-Jul. '83, AJS Judicature)
    • Centralized Research Staff: Is There a Monster in the Judicial Closet?, Stow, Mary Lou and Spaeth, Harold J., 75: 216-221 (Dec.-Jan. '92, AJS Judicature)
    • Chief Justice Rehnquist as third branch leader, Wheeler, Russell R., 89: 116-120 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
    • Chief Justice Rehnquist: “poster child” for the attitudinal model, Spaeth, Harold J., 89: 108-115 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
    • A chilling article (letter), Sarokin, H. Lee, 84: 114 (Nov.-Dec. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • Circuit breaker: Deciphering courts of appeals decisions using the U.S. Courts of Appeals Data Base, George, Tracey E. and Sheehan, Reginald S., 83: 240-247 (Mar.-Apr. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • The Clerk Connection: Appearances Before The Supreme Court By Former Law Clerks, O'Connor, Karen and Hermann, John R., 78: 247-249 (Mar.-Apr. '95, AJS Judicature)
    • The Clinton clones: Ginsburg, Breyer, and the Clinton legacy, O'Connor, Karen and Palmer, Barbara, 84: 262-273 (Mar.-Apr. '01, AJS Judicature)
    • Collegiality among Supreme Court justices? An early assessment of the Roberts Court, Yalof, David A., Mello, Joseph, and Schmidt, Patrick, 95: 12-19 (July-Aug '11, AJS Judicature)
    • Collegiality and the Court of Appeals, Seitz, Collins J., 75: 26-27 (Jun.-Jul. '91, AJS Judicature)
    • Collegiality and the District Courts, Ziegler, Donald E., 75: 74-75 (Jun.-Jul. '91, AJS Judicature)
    • Comparing courts using the American states, Brace, Paul and Hall, Melinda Gann, 83: 250-266 (Mar.-Apr. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • The composition of state supreme courts, 2000, Bonneau, Chris W., 85: 26-31 (July-Aug. '01, AJS Judicature)
    • Concurring in result without written opinion: a condemnable practice (viewpoint), Robbins, Ira P., 84: 118-119, 160-165 (Nov.-Dec. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • Congress authorizes appellate study panel (focus), Tobias, Carl, 81: 125-126 (Nov.-Dec. '97, AJS Judicature)
    • Congress considers bill to split Ninth Circuit (focus), Tobias, Carl, 79: 198-199 (Jan.-Feb. '96, AJS Judicature)
    • Congressional responses to federal circuit court decisions, Lindquist, Stephanie A. and Yalof, David A., 85: 60-68 (Sept.-Oct. '01, AJS Judicature)
    • Consensus In The Unanimous Decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court, Spaeth, Harold J., 72: 274-281 (Feb.-Mar. '89, AJS Judicature)
    • The Constitution and Absolute Values (letter), Johnston, A. Eric, 63: 412 (Apr. '80, AJS Judicature)
    • Contestation, competition, and the potential for accountability in intermediate appellate court elections, Streb, Matthew J., Frederick, Brian, and LaFrance, Casey, 91: 70-78 (Sep-Oct '07, AJS Judicature)
    • Correction, Author, No, 77: 184, 336 (Nov.-Dec. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • Could Judges Deliver More Justice If They Wrote Fewer Opinions? (query), Merrill, Charles M., 64: 435, 471 (May '81, AJS Judicature)
    • Creating An Intermediate Appellate Court; Does It Reduce The Caseload of A State's Highest Court?, Flango, Victor Eugene, 64: 74-84 (Aug. '80, AJS Judicature)
    • Criteria for Publication of Opinions in the U.S. Courts of Appeals: Formal Rules Versus Empirical Reality, Songer, Donald R., 73: 307-313 (Apr.-May '90, AJS Judicature)
    • A Crucial Caveat (letter), Davies, Thomas Y., 67: 316 (Feb. '84, AJS Judicature)
    • David Souter's First Term on the Supreme Court: The Impact of a New Justice, Johnson, Scott P. and Smith, Christopher E., 75: 238-243 (Feb.-Mar. '92, AJS Judicature)
    • Death is the whole ball game, Fagan, James, West, Valerie, and Liebman, James S., 84: 144-145 (Nov.-Dec. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • Death matters: a reply to Latzer and Cauthen, Liebman, James S., Fagan, James, and West, Valerie, 84: 72-77, 99 (Sept.-Oct. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • Death Penalty Habeas Corpus: Defining the Issues, Robbins, Ira P., 73: 215-219 (Dec.-Jan. '90, AJS Judicature)
    • Debunking the myth (letter), Salibra, Lawrence A., II, 85: 171 (Jan.-Feb. '02, AJS Judicature)
    • Deciding What to Decide: How The Supreme Court Sets Its Agenda, Provine, D. Marie, 64: 320-333 (Feb. '81, AJS Judicature)
    • Deciding what to decide: the Judges' Bill at 75, Harnett, Edward A., 84: 120-127 (Nov.-Dec. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • Decision-making trends of the Rehnquist Court era: Civil rights and liberties cases, Hensley, Thomas R. and Smith, Christopher E., 89: 161-167, 184-185 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
    • The decline and fall of legislative history? Patterns of Supreme Court reliance in the Burger and Rehnquist eras, Brudney, James J. and Ditslear, Corey, 89: 220-229 (Jan.-Feb. '06, AJS Judicature)
    • Defining Activism (letter), Kellogg, Frederick R., 67: 317 (Feb. '84, AJS Judicature)
    • Departures in the study of state supreme courts (review essay), Caldeira, Gregory A., 67: 458-463 (Apr. '84, AJS Judicature)
    • Describing the state solicitors, banks, miller, 93: 238-246 (6, AJS Judicature)
    • Deserving of Serious Attention (letter), Gunther, Gerald, 67: 109 (Sep. '83, AJS Judicature)
    • Designated Judges: How Well Do They Perform?, Green, Justin J. and Atkins, Burton M., 61: 358-370 (Mar. '78, AJS Judicature)
    • The Development of Appellate Sentence Review in Alaska, DiPietro, Susanne, 75: 143-153 (Oct-Nov '91, AJS Judicature)
    • A diminished plenary docket: A legacy of the Rehnquist Court, O'Brien, David M., 89: 134-137 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
    • A Dissent on Dissent, Bennett, Robert W., 74: 255-260 (Feb.-Mar. '91, AJS Judicature)
    • Distributive Justice: Majority Opinion Assignments in the Burger Court, Spaeth, Harold J., 67: 299-304 (Dec.-Jan. '84, AJS Judicature)
    • Diversity Jurisdiction Through the Lens of Federalism, Sloviter, Dolores K., 76: 90-93, 99 (Aug.-Sep. '92, AJS Judicature)
    • Do The Costs of The En Banc Proceeding Outweigh Its Advantages? (query), Kaufman, Irving R., 69: 7-8, 57 (Jun.-Jul. '85, AJS Judicature)
    • Drawing a Line on Freedom of the Press: The Burger Court Picks Up The Chalk, Cann, Steven, 66: 296-303 (Feb. '83, AJS Judicature)
    • The Effectiveness of Flexible Assignment of Appeals Between Supreme and Intermediate Courts, Marvell, Thomas B., 78: 292-298 (May-Jun. '95, AJS Judicature)
    • Efforts to split the Ninth Circuit unsuccessful in the 109th Congress (focus), Tobias, Carl, 90: 135-136 (Nov-Dec '06, AJS Judicature)
    • Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals Pre-Argument Conference Program, Martin, John H., 69: 312-313 (Feb.-Mar. '86, AJS Judicature)
    • Eighth Circuit decision intensifies debate over publication and citation of appellate opinions, Braun, Jerome I., 84: 90-95 (Sept.-Oct. '00, AJS Judicature)
    • The era of the choral Court, Maveety, Nancy, 89: 138-145 (Nov.-Dec. '05, AJS Judicature)
    • An Examination of Voting Behavior in the Louisiana Supreme Court, Hall, Melinda Gann, 71: 40-46 (Jun.-Jul. '87, AJS Judicature)
    • Examining an Analogy: Does the Judicial Monster Eat Chaff?, Stow, Mary Lou and Spaeth, Harold J., 75: 294, 337 (Apr.-May '92, AJS Judicature)
    • Examining The Crisis Of Volume In The U.S. Courts Of Appeals (letter), Gizzi, Michael C., 77: 96-103 (Sep.-Oct. '93, AJS Judicature)
    • The Exercise of Advice and Consent, Simon, Paul, 76: 789-191 (Dec.-Jan. '93, AJS Judicature)
  • Appellate Courts: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

    Federal Primary Materials

    The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about Appellate Courts. This part provides references, in relation to Appellate Courts, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

    Federal primary materials about Appellate Courts by content types:

    Laws and Regulations

    US Constitution
    Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

    Federal Case Law and Court Materials

    U.S. Courts of Appeals
    United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

    Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

    Presidential Materials

    Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

    Executive Materials

    Federal Legislative History Materials

    Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about Appellate Courts and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about Appellate Courts or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

    State Administrative Materials and Resources

    State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to Appellate Courts and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting Appellate Courts. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about Appellate Courts should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

    State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

    State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to Appellate Courts when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

    Tools and Forms

    Law in Other Regions

    *This resource guide is updated frequently. However, if you notice something is wrong or not working, or any resources that should be added, please notify us in any of the "Leave a Comment" area.

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