American Politics

American Politics in the United States

Political Science: Fields in Political Science: American Politics

Introduction to American Politics

Research institutions in most of the world classify American politics as a subfield of comparative politics. However, political scientists usually organize the study of their own country into a separate field, so within the United States, American politics is recognized as its own specialty. Given the size of the United States and the number of students who study U.S. politics in colleges and universities, the American politics subfield is very large. Political scientists interested in American politics often study the Congress of the United States, judicial politics, constitutional law, the presidency, state and local politics, voting and elections, and American political history.” (1)

Resources

Notes and References

Guide to American Politics

About Voting

Voting Rights, Voter Participation, Election Redistricting, Electoral College (including Electoral College Selection, Counting the Votes, Electoral College Origins, Electoral College First Years, Electoral College History and the 12th Amendment, Disputed Elections of 1824 and 1876, Electoral College and the Influence of Political Parties, Winner-Take-All System, Debate Over the Electoral College and Electoral College Reform), Electorate Age and Electorate Constitutional Provisions.

List of Main Terms about American Politics

  • abatement
  • ability to pay principle
  • ability to pay tax
  • absolute advantage
  • absolute cost advantage
  • absorption
  • acceleration principle
  • ad valorem tax
  • adjustable peg
  • adjustment assistance
  • adjustment policies
  • adjustments
  • adjustments estimate
  • affluenza
  • aggregate demand
  • aggregate income
  • aggregate supply
  • aid
  • aid packaging
  • allocation of resources
  • analyst
  • apportionment
  • appropriation
  • Articles of Confederation
  • attribution theory
  • Austrian School of Economics
  • autocracy
  • automatic fiscal stabilizers
  • balance of indebtedness
  • balance of payments (BOP)
  • balance of trade (BOT)
  • barriers to entry
  • base year
  • basic good
  • basic industry
  • beggar thy neighbor policy
  • benefit principle
  • benefits received rule
  • Berlin Wall
  • birth rate
  • black economy
  • black market
  • boom
  • Borsodi’s law
  • boycott
  • Bretton Woods system
  • business activity
  • business climate
  • business cycle
  • business resources
  • buying power
  • cap and trade
  • capital
  • capital account
  • capital employed
  • capital formation
  • capital goods
  • capital grant
  • capital inflow
  • capital intensive
  • capital investment
  • capital market theories
  • capital resource
  • capitalism
  • cartel
  • census
  • central bank
  • cess
  • change equilibrium
  • checks and balances
  • Chicago school of economics
  • civil society
  • civilian labor force
  • civilian noninstitutional population
  • classical economics
  • classical unemployment
  • Coase’s theorem
  • collapse
  • commercial sector
  • commoditization
  • commodity
  • common market
  • communications
  • communism
  • communist
  • comparative advantage
  • compensatory finance
  • competency convergence
  • competition
  • competitive
  • competitive advantage
  • competitive equilibrium
  • competitive forces
  • competitive position
  • competitive product
  • competitiveness
  • complementary good
  • complementary product
  • concentrated growth
  • concentrated industry
  • conservation
  • conservatism
  • constant returns to scale
  • consumer buying behavior
  • consumer durables
  • consumer goods
  • consumer price index (CPI)
  • consumer price inflation
  • consumer sovereignty
  • consumer spending
  • consumer surplus
  • consumer unit (CU)
  • consumerism
  • consumption
  • consumption expenditure
  • consumption function
  • consumption rate
  • consumption tax
  • convexity
  • core CPI
  • corporate scandal
  • cost of living
  • cost of living adjustment (COLA)
  • cost of living allowance (COLA)
  • cost of money
  • cost push inflation
  • counter cyclical policy
  • counter-cyclical
  • countervailing power
  • Cournot competition
  • crash
  • creeping inflation
  • crop failure
  • cross-elasticity of demand
  • currency
  • currency crisis
  • currency restriction
  • current account balance (CAB)
  • current demand
  • current dollar [or any other currency]
  • current market selling price
  • current purchasing power (CPP)
  • customs union
  • cutthroat competition
  • deadweight loss
  • dear money
  • death rate
  • debt forgiveness
  • dedication
  • deficiency payment
  • deficit financing
  • deficit spending
  • deflation
  • deflator
  • demand
  • demand analysis
  • demand and supply
  • demand curve
  • demand factor
  • demand management
  • demand pull inflation
  • demand side economics
  • democracy
  • demographic environment
  • demographic factors
  • demographic time-bomb
  • demographic transition
  • demographics
  • demography
  • DENK
  • Department of Labor
  • dependent demand
  • depreciation
  • depression
  • deregulation
  • derived demand
  • devaluation
  • developed countries
  • developing countries
  • development
  • development capital
  • DEWK
  • diffusion of innovation
  • diminishing marginal product
  • direct competition
  • direct investment
  • direct tax
  • direct write off method
  • discount store
  • discretionary income
  • diseconomies of scale
  • dislocated worker
  • displaced homemaker
  • displaced worker
  • disposable income
  • distributive justice
  • division of labor
  • domestic demand
  • dominant firm
  • double taxation
  • double-dip recession
  • downtrend
  • downturn
  • drought
  • dual economy
  • dumping
  • duopoly
  • early adopters
  • early majority
  • eco-efficiency
  • ecological sustainability
  • ecologically sustainable development
  • econometric modeling
  • economic analysis
  • economic assumptions
  • economic base
  • economic capital
  • economic control
  • economic cost
  • economic crisis
  • economic cycle
  • economic development
  • economic dynamics
  • economic efficiency
  • economic environment
  • economic equilibrium
  • economic equity
  • economic forces
  • economic freedom
  • economic goods
  • economic growth
  • economic growth rate
  • economic impact
  • economic income
  • economic indicators
  • economic inefficiency
  • economic infrastructure
  • economic integration
  • economic interdependence
  • economic law
  • economic man
  • economic multiplier
  • economic power
  • economic principle
  • economic profit
  • economic rate of return (ERR)
  • economic rent
  • economic system
  • economic tsunami
  • economic utility
  • economic valuation
  • economically active population
  • economically sustainable
  • economics
  • economics of one unit (EOU)
  • economics of scope
  • economies of scale
  • economies of scope
  • economy
  • education
  • effective competition
  • effective demand
  • effective exchange rate (EXR)
  • effective interest rate
  • effective rate
  • effective tax rate
  • efficient market
  • egalitarian
  • elastic demand
  • elastic supply
  • elasticity
  • elasticity of demand
  • elasticity of substitution
  • elasticity of supply
  • election
  • emancipation
  • emerging economies
  • emerging markets
  • employed
  • employed person
  • Employer Identification Number (EIN)
  • employment
  • endorse
  • energy
  • energy costs
  • energy crop
  • energy reserves
  • energy resource
  • energy source
  • Engel’s Law
  • entitlement
  • environmental capital
  • environmental equity
  • environmental hygiene
  • environmental non-governmental organization (ENGO)
  • environmental protection
  • environmental sanitation
  • environmental value
  • escalation
  • establishment
  • ethical standards
  • European Commission
  • European Parliament
  • excess capacity
  • excess demand
  • exchange
  • exchange controls
  • exchange rate
  • expected monetary value
  • expected value (EV)
  • experience curve
  • exponential growth
  • export processing zone (EPZ)
  • export quota
  • export subsidy
  • exports
  • external agents
  • external economies
  • external environment
  • external stakeholder
  • externalities
  • factor cost
  • factor income
  • factors of production
  • fad
  • fair competition
  • fallacy of composition
  • family
  • family house
  • family life cycle
  • fascism
  • Federal Government
  • federation
  • fertility rate
  • final good (service)
  • financial assistance
  • financial contagion
  • financial crisis
  • first world
  • fiscal
  • fiscal drag
  • fiscal policy
  • fiscal year
  • Fisher criterion
  • Fisher effect
  • Fisher equation
  • Fisher hypothesis
  • five forces
  • flea market
  • follow up study
  • food stamps
  • foreign direct investment (FDI)
  • foreign exchange (Forex or FX)
  • foreign exchange earnings
  • foreign exchange rate
  • foreign exchange reserves
  • foreign investment
  • foreign policy
  • foreign reserve
  • foreign trade zone (FTZ)
  • former Soviet Union (FSU)
  • fractional reserve system (FRS)
  • fragmentation
  • fragmented industry
  • free
  • free enterprise
  • free good
  • free market
  • free market economy
  • free port
  • free rider
  • free trade
  • free trade agreement
  • Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA)
  • free trade area
  • free trade zone (FTZ)
  • free zone
  • frictional unemployment
  • Friendster
  • full and open competition
  • full employment
  • general equilibrium
  • general revenue
  • generalized system of preferences (GSP)
  • Generation Jones
  • Generation X
  • Generation Y
  • generic competition
  • generic need
  • Giffen good
  • Gini index
  • global
  • global economy
  • global interdependence
  • global recession
  • global risk
  • glut
  • gold standard
  • good
  • goods
  • government
  • government accounting
  • governmental
  • grant
  • Great Depression
  • green economics
  • gross domestic product (GDP)
  • gross national product (GNP)
  • group of eight (G-8)
  • group of eleven (G-11)
  • group of fifteen (G-15)
  • group of seven (G-7)
  • group of seventy seven (G-77)
  • Group of Ten (G-10)
  • group of thirty (G-30)
  • group of twenty-four (G-24)
  • growth industry
  • GST tax
  • Harry Markowitz
  • Henry Paulson
  • Herfindahl index
  • hidden unemployment
  • homogeneous goods
  • horizontal integration
  • household
  • housing bubble
  • human capital
  • human development index (HDI)
  • hyperinflation
  • immediate family
  • imperfect competition
  • import restrictions
  • import substitution
  • imports
  • improvement
  • improvements
  • in real terms
  • income
  • income distribution
  • income effect
  • income elasticity of demand
  • income tax
  • independent
  • indicator
  • indices
  • indirect competition
  • indirect exports
  • indirect tax
  • induced investment
  • industrial base
  • industrial goods
  • industrial revolution
  • industrial sector
  • industrialization
  • industry
  • industry attractiveness
  • inelastic demand
  • inelastic supply
  • infant industry
  • infant mortality
  • inferior good
  • inflation
  • inflationary spiral
  • informal economy
  • informal sector
  • information asymmetry
  • information economy
  • information revolution
  • information society
  • information-based model
  • infrastructure
  • input tax
  • inputs
  • institutional
  • interchannel competition
  • interest group
  • intergenerational equity
  • intermediate good
  • intermediate product
  • internal environment
  • internal revenue
  • International Accounting Standards (IAS)
  • International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)
  • International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC)
  • International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • international monetary system
  • international non-governmental organization (INGO)
  • intertype competition
  • intrapreneurship
  • intratype competition
  • intrinsic value
  • intrinsic worth
  • investment bank
  • investment credit
  • investment function
  • investment incentives
  • invisible hand
  • isolationism
  • joint demand
  • Karl Marx
  • keiretsu
  • Keynesian economics
  • Keynesian unemployment
  • kinked demand curve
  • knowledge economy
  • labor
  • labor demand
  • labor economics
  • labor force
  • labor intensive
  • labor market
  • labor productivity
  • labor supply
  • lagging indicators
  • laissez-faire
  • laissez-faire economics
  • land
  • latent demand
  • lateral integration
  • Latin America
  • law of demand
  • law of diminishing marginal utility
  • law of diminishing returns
  • law of effect
  • law of large numbers
  • law of markets
  • law of one price
  • law of proportions
  • law of small numbers
  • law of statistical regularity
  • law of supply and demand
  • leading indicators
  • learning curve
  • legal monopoly
  • lender of last resort
  • liberalism
  • Libertarianism
  • life cycle
  • lifestyle
  • light industry
  • Limits-To-Growth’ report
  • linear market
  • liquidity trap
  • lobby
  • lobbying
  • local government
  • local taxes
  • Lome convention
  • London Club
  • low-cost country sourcing (LCCS)
  • Machiavellian
  • macro marketing
  • macroeconomic conditions
  • macroeconomics
  • Malthusian thesis
  • manpower
  • manufacturing
  • manufacturing sector
  • marginal analysis
  • marginal benefit
  • marginal cost
  • marginal external cost
  • marginal pricing
  • marginal private benefit
  • marginal private cost
  • marginal product
  • marginal product of labor
  • marginal productivity
  • marginal productivity theory of wages
  • marginal profit
  • marginal propensity to consume
  • marginal revenue
  • marginal social benefit
  • marginal social cost
  • marginal utility
  • marginal utility of money
  • marginal value product
  • market
  • market access
  • market concentration
  • market condition
  • market coordination
  • market demand
  • market density
  • market dynamics
  • market economy
  • market efficiency
  • market equilibrium
  • market factor
  • market failure
  • market forces
  • market fragmentation
  • market index
  • market inefficiency
  • market mechanisms
  • market power
  • market profile
  • market segment
  • market signal
  • market structure
  • Marxism
  • mass market
  • mature market
  • maturity stage
  • mercantilism
  • merchandise exports
  • MERCOSUR
  • merger
  • merit goods
  • meritocracy
  • microeconomics
  • middle class
  • migration
  • minimum wage
  • mixed economy
  • mobility of capital
  • mobility of labor
  • Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT)
  • modernity
  • modernization
  • Modiglani-Miller hypothesis
  • monetarism
  • monetary
  • monetary policy
  • monetary system
  • monetary union
  • monetary unit
  • money
  • money market
  • money multiplier
  • money supply
  • monopolistic competition
  • monopoly
  • monopoly power
  • moral suasion
  • morbidity
  • mortality
  • mortality rate
  • most favored nation (MFN)
  • multinational corporation (MNC)
  • municipality
  • nation
  • national debt
  • national expenditure
  • nationalization
  • natural monopoly
  • natural rate of employment
  • natural rate of unemployment
  • natural resource
  • necessities
  • necessity
  • neo classical economics
  • neutral tax
  • new classical economics
  • New Deal
  • New Federalism
  • newly industrializing country (NIC)
  • nominal dollar [or any other currency]
  • nominal price
  • non tariff barrier (NTB)
  • non-financial industry
  • non-governmental organization (NGO)
  • non-price competition
  • non-renewable resource
  • normal good
  • normative economics
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • not in my backyard (NIMBY)
  • occupation tax
  • official reserve
  • oligopolistic competition
  • oligopoly
  • oligopsony
  • open economy
  • open market
  • open market operations
  • operating environment
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
  • Organization of American States (OAS)
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
  • outlay
  • output gap
  • output tax
  • own price elasticity of demand
  • panic
  • paradox of thrift
  • paradox of value
  • parallel economy
  • Pareto optimality
  • Pareto optimum
  • Pareto principle
  • partial equilibrium analysis
  • paternalism
  • pay as you earn (PAYE)
  • payment on account
  • pecuniary
  • peer group
  • peg
  • per capita income
  • perfect competition
  • perfect information
  • petrodollars
  • philanthropy
  • Phillips curve
  • physical capital
  • physiological
  • policy
  • poll tax
  • polygon
  • polypoly
  • polyspony
  • population
  • population density
  • pork barrel spending
  • positive economics
  • post industrial society
  • post office
  • potential market
  • potential output
  • poverty
  • poverty cycle
  • poverty line
  • poverty trap
  • Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA)
  • price
  • price collusion
  • price control
  • price determination
  • price discovery
  • price gouging
  • price index
  • price mechanism
  • price point
  • price system
  • primary deficit
  • primary industry
  • primary sector
  • private cost
  • private enterprise
  • private good
  • private sector
  • privatization
  • probable reserves
  • producer price index (PPI)
  • producer surplus
  • product
  • product life cycle
  • production possibility curve
  • progressive tax
  • proper resource pricing
  • proportional tax
  • prosperity
  • protectionism
  • proxy indicator
  • psychological
  • public finance
  • public good
  • public interest group (PIG)
  • public ownership
  • public sector
  • public service
  • public spending
  • pump priming
  • purchasing power
  • pure public good
  • pure rent
  • q ratio
  • quality of life
  • quasi non-governmental organization (Quango)
  • quota sampling
  • Ramsey pricing
  • rational choice theory (RCT)
  • rational expectations
  • rationing
  • rationing function of price
  • real investment
  • real return
  • real variable
  • recession
  • reciprocity
  • recovery
  • redistribution of wealth
  • reference group
  • referendum
  • reflation
  • reflationary policy
  • reflex effect
  • regional
  • regressive tax
  • regulatory force
  • renewable energy
  • rent
  • reserve accounts
  • reserve currency
  • reserves
  • residential sector
  • resource
  • resource dependence
  • retail price index (RPI)
  • retail sales
  • revenue
  • sanction
  • saturated market
  • savings
  • scarcity
  • school of thought
  • search engine marketing (SEM)
  • seasonal unemployment
  • second world
  • secondary industry
  • secondary needs
  • sector
  • secular trend
  • service industry
  • services
  • shadow economy
  • shakeout
  • short supply
  • shortage
  • sin tax
  • skimming
  • slump
  • small and medium enterprise (SME)
  • small business
  • social accountability
  • social audit
  • social capital
  • social class
  • social contract
  • Social Darwinism
  • social good
  • social impact
  • social insurance
  • social safety net
  • Social Security Number (SSN)
  • social security system
  • social services
  • social structure
  • social value
  • social welfare
  • socioeconomic
  • sovereign debt
  • special drawing rights (SDR)
  • specialization
  • specialization of labor
  • stabilization policy
  • stagflation
  • standard of living
  • staple food
  • staple goods (staples)
  • state
  • state trading company
  • statistical inference
  • statistical sample
  • stipend
  • stock market crash
  • stop go policy
  • stratification
  • structural adjustment
  • structural alteration
  • structural analysis
  • structural change
  • structural inflation
  • structural transformation
  • structural unemployment
  • structure
  • structured
  • subscription
  • subsidy
  • substitutability
  • substitute goods
  • substitution effect
  • suburb
  • subvention
  • sunrise industry
  • sunset industry
  • superior good
  • supply
  • supply and demand
  • supply curve
  • supply shock
  • supply side economics
  • suppressed inflation
  • surplus
  • surplus value
  • surtax
  • survival of the fittest
  • survivor principle
  • sustainability
  • sustainable competitive advantage
  • sustainable development
  • sustainable growth model
  • sustainable growth rate
  • tax
  • tax abatement
  • tax base
  • tax based incomes policy
  • tax break
  • tax code
  • tax expenditure
  • tax holiday
  • tax incentive
  • taxation
  • taxation principles
  • Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN)
  • technical advance
  • technical efficiency
  • technological externalities
  • technology infrastructure
  • terms of sale
  • terms of trade
  • tertiary sector
  • The Wealth of Nations
  • theory of rational expectations (TRE)
  • theory of the firm
  • theory of the first best
  • theory of the second best
  • Third World
  • tight monetary policy
  • time preference
  • time utility
  • Tobin’s ‘q’ theory
  • topographic map
  • topography
  • total output
  • trade barrier
  • trade cycle
  • trade deficit
  • trade liberalization
  • trade regime
  • transaction cost
  • transaction price
  • transaction tax
  • transactions motive
  • transfer cost
  • transfer earnings
  • transfer payment
  • transfer price
  • transformation curve
  • transitional economy
  • trickle down theory
  • triple bottom line
  • turnaround
  • uber-wealthy
  • unconstrained demand
  • underclass
  • unemployed
  • unemployment
  • unemployment rate
  • unfair competition
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
  • unitary elasticity
  • United Nations
  • unsought good
  • upper class
  • upstream industries
  • urban renewal
  • use value
  • user cost
  • utility
  • utility maximization
  • utility theory
  • value
  • value added
  • value added tax (VAT)
  • value for money (VFM)
  • value of marginal product (VMP)
  • Veblen effect
  • vertical integration
  • vie
  • volatility
  • W. Edwards Deming
  • wage and price controls
  • wage compression
  • wage expansion
  • wage freeze
  • wage push inflation
  • wage-price cycle
  • wage-price spiral
  • Walt Disney
  • want
  • wealth
  • wealth effect
  • welfare
  • welfare economics
  • welfare state
  • workforce
  • working class
  • World Bank
  • World Trade Organization (WTO)

American Politics: Open and Free Legal Research of US Law

Federal Primary Materials

The U.S. federal government system consists of executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each of which creates information that can be the subject of legal research about American Politics. This part provides references, in relation to American Politics, to the legislative process, the federal judiciary, and the primary sources of federal law (cases, statutes, and regulations).

Federal primary materials about American Politics by content types:

Laws and Regulations

US Constitution
Federal Statutory Codes and Legislation

Federal Case Law and Court Materials

U.S. Courts of Appeals
United States courts of appeals, inclouding bankruptcy courts and bankcruptcy appellate panels:

Federal Administrative Materials and Resources

Presidential Materials

Materials that emanate from the President’s lawmaking function include executive orders for officers in departments and agencies and proclamations for announcing ceremonial or commemorative policies. Presidential materials available include:

Executive Materials

Federal Legislative History Materials

Legislative history traces the legislative process of a particular bill (about American Politics and other subjects) for the main purpose of determining the legislators’ intent behind the enactment of a law to explain or clarify ambiguities in the language or the perceived meaning of that law (about American Politics or other topics), or locating the current status of a bill and monitoring its progress.

State Administrative Materials and Resources

State regulations are rules and procedures promulgated by state agencies (which may apply to American Politics and other topics); they are a binding source of law. In addition to promulgating regulations, state administrative boards and agencies often have judicial or quasi-judicial authority and may issue administrative decisions affecting American Politics. Finding these decisions can be challenging. In many cases, researchers about American Politics should check state agency web sites for their regulations, decisions, forms, and other information of interest.

State rules and regulations are found in codes of regulations and administrative codes (official compilation of all rules and regulations, organized by subject matter). Search here:

State opinions of the Attorney General (official written advisory opinions on issues of state law related to American Politics when formerly requested by a designated government officer):

Tools and Forms

Law in Other Regions

*This resource guide is updated frequently. However, if you notice something is wrong or not working, or any resources that should be added, please notify us in any of the "Leave a Comment" area.

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